Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (8): 499-505.doi: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2020.08.004

• Basic Study • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Mechanical strength and inhibition of plaque biofilm activity of a novel antibacterial Hawley retainer

CAO Li,ZHANG Ning,BAI Yuxing()   

  1. Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China
  • Received:2019-11-28 Revised:2020-03-22 Online:2020-08-20 Published:2020-07-15
  • Contact: Yuxing BAI E-mail:byuxing@ccmu.edu.cn

Abstract:

Objectives The purposes of this study were to evaluate the long-term mechanical property, bacteria-killing ability, protein resistance and cytotoxicity of a novel antibacterial methyl methacrylate (MMA) resin. Methods The 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) has been added into the MMA used for making Hawley orthodontic retener according to the mass percentage 0% (control group), 1.5%, 2.25%, 3%, 4.5% and 6%. Specimens from the control group and MPC group were water-aged for 1 d, 90 d and 180 d, and then the universal material testing machine was used to investigate the long-term mechanical properties of the modified MMA specimens in the oral environment. The biofilm metabolic activity, colony-forming unit (CFU) and live/dead staining assay of the biofilms in the control group and MPC group in the oral environment were tested using the dental plaque biofilm model. The micro-bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method was used to determine the amount of protein adsorbed on the specimens. The MTT method was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the control group and MPC group. Results In the simulated oral environment, the addition of 0% to 3% MPC had no significant effect on the mechanical properties of the MMA specimen (P > 0.05). The control group and the modified MMA specimens with 3%MPC were statistically significant in time and the interaction effects between the two groups (P < 0.05). With increasing intervention time, the mechanical strength of both groups decreased, and the effect of time varied with grouping. The protein adsorption on the surface of the modified MMA material after adding 3% MPC decreased by approximately 80%, the metabolic activity of the biofilm decreased by approximately 50%, and biofilm CFU counts decreased by approximately 70% (P < 0.05) compared with the control. There was no statistically significant difference in time or interaction effects between the two groups. The amount of live green bacteria in the 3% MPC group decreased significantly after 1, 90, and 180 d of water aging. There was no significant difference in cytotoxicity between the control group and the MPC group (P > 0.05). Conclusions The addition of MPC into the MMA resin did not compromise the mechanical properties of the resin and exhibited long-lasting antibacterial and protein-repellent effects.

Key words: polymethyl methacrylate resin, Hawley retainer, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine, orthodontics, simulated oral environment, antibacterial properties, protein-repellent effects

CLC Number: 

  • R783.5

Table 1

Comparison of the fracture strength and elastic modulus of different MMA specimens incorporating MPC $\bar{x}±s$"

Groups Flexural strength (MPa) Elastic modulus (GPa)
Control group 73.87 ± 2.61 a 2.14 ± 0.23 a
1.5% MPC group 73.22 ± 1.63 a 2.12 ± 0.21 a
2.25% MPC group 72.47 ± 1.93a 2.05 ± 0.20 a
3% MPC group 71.82 ± 1.87 a 1.98 ± 0.17 a
4.5% MPC group 68.27 ± 1.90b 1.48 ± 0.16 b
6% MPC group 67.64 ± 2.64b 1.10 ± 0.1b
F 22.98 54.42
P < 0.001 < 0.001

Table 2

Comparison of the fracture strength and elastic modulus of different MMA specimens incorporating MPC after different water-aging times $\bar{x}±s$"

Groups Flexural strength (MPa) Elastic modulus (GPa)
1 d 90 d 180 d Total F P 1 d 90 d 180 d Total F P
Control group 71.52 ± 3.73 68.89 ± 3.96 64.48 ± 1.81 68.30 ± 3.17 11.52 0.01 2.14 ± 0.23 2.02 ± 0.42 1.77 ± 0.31 1.98 ± 0.32 6.19 0.006
3% MPCgroup 69.59 ± 4.33 71.66 ± 4.50 68.97 ± 3.31 70.07 ± 4.05 1.19 0.32 2.12 ± 0.16 2.10 ± 0.37 2.07 ± 0.37 2.10 ± 0.30 0.08 0.928
Total 70.41 ± 4.03 70.28 ± 4.23 66.73 ± 2.56 69.14 ± 3.61 5.65* 0.01* 2.13 ± 0.20 2.06 ± 0.40 1.92 ± 0.34 2.04 ± 0.31 4.54* 0.02*
t 1.31 1.28 6.71 5.16* 3.42Δ 0.04Δ 1.03 0.79 3.32* 5.07* 3.00Δ 0.06Δ
P 0.29 0.30 0.001 0.04* 0.39 0.51 0.03* 0.04*

Table 3

Comparison of protein adsorption and biofilm metabolic activity of different MMA specimens incorporating MPC after different water-aging times $\bar{x}±s$"

Groups Protein adsorption (μg/cm2 Biofilm metabolic activity(A540/cm2
1 d 90 d 180 d Total F P 1 d 90 d 180 d Total F P
Control group 6.16 ± 1.41 6.18 ± 2.70 6.89 ± 1.21 6.41 ± 1.77 0.48 0.62 0.41 ± 0.05 0.45 ± 0.08 0.43 ± 0.07 0.43 ± 0.07 0.94 0.41
3% MPC group 0.77 ± 0.52 0.82 ± 0.26 0.85 ± 0.67 0.81 ± 0.48 0.08 0.93 0.21 ± 0.05 0.22 ± 0.04 0.21 ± 0.05 0.21 ± 0.05 0.10 0.91
Total 3.47 ± 0.97 3.50 ± 1.48 3.87 ± 0.94 3.61 ± 1.13 0.48* 0.57* 0.31 ± 0.05 0.67 ± 0.06 0.32 ± 0.06 0.43 ± 0.06 0.84* 0.44*
t 43.82 22.67 73.56 543.85* 0.33Δ 0.66Δ 52.29 34.61 42.81 2 123.02* 0.35Δ 0.70Δ
P < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001* < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001*

Table 4

Total microorganisms CFU counts of different MMA specimens incorporating MPC after different water-aging time $\bar{x}±s$"

Groups Total microorganisms(CFU) F P
1 d 90 d 180 d Total
Control group (3.0 ± 2.0) × 109 (3.7 ± 1.7) × 109 (2.5 ± 3.1) × 109 (3.1 ± 2.2) × 109 0.39 0.72
3% MPC group (7.5 ± 1.5) × 108 (4.5 ± 2.9) × 108 (2.0 ± 1.4) × 108 (4.7 ± 1.8) × 108 7.16 0.12
Total (1.9 ± 1.1) × 109 (2.1 ± 1.0) × 109 (1.4 ± 1.6) × 109 (1.8 ± 1.2) × 109 0.19* 0.83*
t 4.08 3.92 5.84 51.37* 2.71Δ 0.11Δ
P 0.03 0.03 0.01 <0.001*

Table 5

Total Streptococci CFU counts of different MMA specimens incorporating MPC after different water-aging time $\bar{x}±s$"

Groups Total Streptococci (CFU) F P
1 d 90 d 180 d Total
Control group (2.8 ± 1.8) × 108 (6.5 ± 1.9) × 108 (6.5 ± 2.0) × 108 (5.3 ± 1.9) × 108 12.4 0.08
3% MPC group (6.0 ± 1.0) × 107 (3.8 ± 2.0) × 107 (5.8 ± 2.0) × 107 (5.2 ± 1.7) × 107 0.99 0.50
Total (1.7 ± 1.0) × 108 (3.4 ± 1.1) × 108 (3.6 ± 1.1) × 108 (3.6 ± 2.9) × 108 4.13* 0.14*
t 3.56 6.90 6.72 495.84* 4.72Δ 0.13Δ
P 0.04 0.01 0.01 <0.001*

Table 6

Mutans Streptococci CFU counts of different MMA specimens incorporating MPC after different water-aging time $\bar{x}±s$"

Groups Mutans Streptococci (CFU) F P
1 d 90 d 180 d Total
Control group (2.0 ± 1.0) × 107 (4.5 ± 2) × 107 (7 ± 1.4) × 107 (4.5 ± 1.5) × 107 9.22 0.10
3% MPC group (5.5 ± 2.4) × 106 (8.5 ± 1.3) × 106 (2.3 ± 1.2) × 107 (1.2 ± 5.2) × 106 3.91 0.20
Total (1.3 ± 0.6) × 107 (2.7 ± 1.1) × 107 (4.7 ± 1.3) × 107 (2.9 ± 1.0) × 107 7.14* 0.13*
t 3.26 3.40 6.08 67.98* 9.83Δ 0.23Δ
P 0.04 0.04 0.01 <0.001*

Figure 1

Representative live/dead staining photos of biofilms adherent on the MMA specimens incorporating MPC a-c: the live/dead staining pictures of the control group after 1 d, 90 d, and 180 d; d-f: the live/dead staining pictures of the 3% MPC group after 1 d, 90 d, and 180 d; the live bacteria were stained green, and the dead bacteria were stained red; when live and dead bacteria were in close proximity or on top of each other, the staining had yellow or orange colors"

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