口腔疾病防治 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (2): 127-130.DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2020.02.013

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

牙本质在骨组织工程学中的应用

肖闻澜1,胡琛1,2,荣圣安1,朱宸佑1,2,伍颖颖1,2()   

  1. 1. 四川大学口腔疾病研究国家重点实验室 国家口腔疾病临床医学研究中心,四川 成都(610041)
    2. 四川大学华西口腔医院种植科,四川 成都(610041)
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-18 修回日期:2019-10-16 出版日期:2020-02-20 发布日期:2020-02-25
  • 通讯作者: 伍颖颖
  • 作者简介:肖闻澜,学士, Email: 2509871803@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然基金面上项目(81870801)

Application of dentin in bone tissue engineering

XIAO Wenlan1,HU Chen1,2,RONG Shengan1,ZHU Chenyou1,2,WU Yingying1,2()   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
    2. Department of Implantology, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
  • Received:2018-11-18 Revised:2019-10-16 Online:2020-02-20 Published:2020-02-25
  • Contact: Yingying WU

摘要:

由各种原因导致的口腔硬组织缺损会严重影响牙列修复的效果。近年来,骨组织工程学因材料来源广泛、不良反应少等优势成为口腔骨组织重建研究的热点内容。本文就牙本质的组成结构及其在骨组织工程学中的运用作一综述,为进一步优化其性能提供新的思路。文献复习结果表明,牙本质的结构与自体骨非常类似,无机成分以羟基磷灰石(hydroxyapatite, HA)为主,有机成分以I型胶原为主,还包括非胶原蛋白(noncollagenous proteins, NCPs)和生长因子等。因为其独特的组成,牙本质可通过不同的加工方式起到支架和(或)生长因子来源的作用。脱蛋白加工去除大部分有机物质,形成以HA为主的支架材料,其结构疏松多孔,有利于血管化和细胞浸润;脱矿通过降低矿化成分结晶度增大牙本质孔隙率,保留HA、胶原纤维及其搭载的生长因子,因此所得材料功能多样,包括促进细胞成骨分化、黏附和增殖等;提取的牙本质NCPs则属于生物活性分子,通过调控未分化细胞、晶体成核和矿化等参与骨的形成过程,可以配合其他支架材料。

关键词: 牙本质, 支架材料, 骨组织工程学, 骨缺损, 骨修复, 生物材料, 脱蛋白质, 脱矿, 非胶原蛋白, 生长因子, 孔隙率

Abstract:

Defects in oral hard tissue caused by various factors have a negative impact on the functional and aesthetic results of prosthetic treatment. In recent years, the usage of bone tissue engineering for bone reconstruction has drawn widespread attention. Bone tissue engineering exhibits significant advantages, including the abundance of building materials and few side effects. In this paper, the composition and structure of dentin and its application in bone tissue engineering are reviewed, providing a new way to further optimize its performance. The results of a literature review show that the structure of dentin is very similar to that of autogenous bone. The inorganic component is mainly hydroxyapatite (HA), while the organic component is mainly collagen I, noncollagenous proteins (NCPs) and growth factors. Because of its unique composition, dentin can act as a scaffold and/or growth factor source through different processing methods. The deproteinization process removes most of the organic substances and creates a HA-based scaffold material with high porosity, which allows for vascularization and cellular infiltration. Demineralization increases dentin porosity by reducing the crystallinity of the mineralized components, so that part of HA, collagen fibers and growth factors are preserved. Demineralized dentin possesses various regulation functions ranging from differentiation, adhesion and proliferation of primitive cells and bone forming cell lineage. Extracted NCPs, as bioactive molecules, have been proved to play important roles that control cell differentiation, crystal nucleation and mineralization in bone formation. NCPs could be combined with variety of scaffold materials and modify their properties.

Key words: dentin, scaffold material, bone tissue engineering, bone defect, bone reconstruction, biomaterial, deproteinization, demineralization, noncollagenous proteins, growth factors, porosity

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