With the increasing demand for beauty, the treatment of gingival recession has become a common request among patients. Clinically, gingival recession is mainly treated by surgery. The common surgical methods include free gingival grafting, pedicled flap technology and double flap technology (subepithelial connective tissue transplantation combined with coronally advanced flaps). If patients with indications are selected, satisfactory surgical results will be obtained. However, there are still some shortcomings in the above mentioned methods, such as the root coverage effect not being satisfactory. In recent years, researchers have put forward some improved schemes to minimize the shortcomings of the above methods to treat different degrees of gingival recession. A gingival unit graft containing gingival papilla and free gingiva can improve the blood supply of the recipient area and improve the effect of root coverage. It can obtain better root coverage for slight retraction, widening of the angular gingiva and deepening of the vestibular sulcus, but there may be issues with inconsistent color and shape of the gingiva after surgery, as well as poor aesthetic effects. Modified coronally advanced flaps, flaps prepared by the technique of half-thickness, full-thickness and half-thickness, and modified coronally advanced envelope flap technology are designed with the most serious retraction teeth as the center in the case of multiple gingival retractions, both of which can improve the effect of root covering. Tunnel technology and modified tunnel technology, without severing the gingival papilla and tunneling the gingival flap to accommodate the graft, can effectively reduce tissue damage and promote wound healing. This paper reviews the literature and summarizes the outcome of the modified surgery techniques in the treatment of gingival recession. These treatment options for gingival recession are proposed with the aim of improving clinical work, and some suggestions for the treatment of gingival recession to achieve a stable root coverage effect are put forward. In the future, the development direction of mucogingival surgery is to reduce trauma and have a stable curative effect.
Objective To investigate the impact of exosomal miRNAs derived from endoplasmic reticulum-stressed (ERS) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells on macrophages. Methods This study was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee. The expression levels of ERS-associated proteins, including protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), in HNSCC tissues and para-tumor tissues were detected by Western blot (WB) and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). HN4 human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells were treated with 500 U/mL interferon-γ (IFN-γ) for 48 h to induce ER stress, and exosomes secreted by ER-stressed HN4 cells were collected and identified. The types of miRNAs in exosomes were identified through bioinformatics analysis, and the target genes of miRNAs were predicted. Macrophages were transfected with miRNA, co cultured with collected exosomes, and the expression of PTEN in macrophages was knocked down. The downstream signaling pathway regulated by exosomal miRNAs was studied by WB and RT-qPCR. Results Compared with that in para-tumor tissues, the expression level of ER stress-associated proteins in HNSCC tissues was increased (P<0.05). RNA-seq analysis revealed that miR-26a-5p was highly upregulated in ER-stressed HN4 cell-derived exosomes (P<0.05). PTEN is the target gene for miR-26a-5p. miR-26a-5p increased the expression level of PD-L1 in macrophages and downregulated the expression of PTEN (P<0.05). Macrophages co cultured with ERS extracellular vesicles showed an increase in miR-26a-5p and PD-L1 expression, a decrease in PTEN expression, and an increase in p-AKT expression (P<0.05). Knock down the expression of PTEN in macrophages and increase the expression of PD-L1 (P<0.01). Conclusion ERS HNSCC cell-derived exosomal miR-26a-5p promotes the expression of PD-L1 in macrophages through the PTEN/AKT signaling pathway.
Objective To study the effect of low concentrations of sodium fluoride on the osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) in vitro. Methods This study was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee. hDPCs were cultured using a modified tissue explant technique in vitro. The effects of different concentrations of sodium fluoride on the proliferation of hDPCs were measured by methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Appropriate concentrations were added to the osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation induction medium, and the cells were induced in vitro. Alizarin red S staining was used to detect the osteoblastic/odontogenic differentiation ability of the cells, and the mRNA expression of the key differentiation factors was detected by RT-qPCR. Moreover, the expression of key molecules of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) was detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot. The data were analyzed with the SPSS 18.0 software package. Results Low concentration of NaF (0.1 mmol/L) could stimulate cell proliferation in vitro, while a high concentration (5-10 mmol/L) could inhibit cell proliferation (P<0.05). According to the literature and the experimental data, 0.1 mmol/L NaF was selected as the following experimental concentration. The levels of alizarin red S staining were increased after NaF induction of mixed osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation in vitro. The mRNA expression levels of key molecules for osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation, dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OCN), were increased (P<0.05). The mRNA levels of ERS markers (splicing x-box binding protein-1 (sXBP1), glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and activating transcription Factor 4 (ATF4) were increased in NaF-treated cells. The protein expression levels of key ER stress molecules (phosphorylated RNA-activated protein kinase-like ER-resident kinase (p-PERK), phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (p-eIF2α) and ATF4) were higher in NaF-treated cells. Conclusion A low concentration of NaF promotes the osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs and increases the level of ER stress.
Objective To investigate the clinical effect of lithium disilicate glass ceramic cantilever resin-bonded fixed partial dentures (CRBFPDs) on single anterior tooth loss to provide a reference for the selection of restoration methods for single anterior tooth loss. Methods This study was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee, and informed consent was obtained from the patients. Forty-two patients with less than two anterior teeth with monomaxillary loss were included in this study. After 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years, the aesthetic and functional effects of the restorations and the periodontal health status were evaluated, and the visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess patient satisfaction. Results During the observation period, the connector fractured in one case within 3 months. One case had debonded within 2 years. The aesthetic restoration effect of all lithium disilicate glass ceramic CRBFPDs was categorized as Class A. The periodontal health was good, there was no clinical absorption in the soft and hard tissues of the abutment or subbridge, periodontal status according to the evaluation indices was classified as class A, and the total satisfaction rate of the patient was 100%. Conclusion For single anterior tooth loss patients, lithium disilicate glass ceramic cantilever resin-bonded fixed partial denture can achieve the restoration effect of less invasion, better adhesion, aesthetics, comfort and good biocompatibility. With high patient satisfaction, it can be considered an ideal restoration method for replacing a single anterior tooth.
Objective To compare the recurrence rates between 755 nm Q-switched alexandrite laser (QSAL) treatment and surgical excision of oral melanotic macules (OMM). Methods This study was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee, and informed consent was obtained from the patients. A retrospective cohort study was designed to collect demographic and clinical characteristics and follow-up data from patients with OMM. Patients who received QSAL or surgical excision in the Department of Oral Medicine, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine from January 2019 to August 2021 were included. The one-year recurrence rate was investigated as the primary outcome. Long-term adverse reaction rates were investigated as safety indicators. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to analyze the recurrence-free rates between the groups. Results A total of 57 patients were enrolled in this study. 16 patients underwent surgical excision, and 41 underwent QSAL. The baseline demographic and clinical characteristics between the groups were not significantly different. No recurrence (0%) of OMM was observed in the surgical excision group, while in the QSAL group, the macule recurred in 12 patients (29.27%). The average duration of recurrence was 6.08 months after treatment. Recurrence was not found to be associated with smoking (P = 1.000), gastrointestinal polyps (P = 1.000), longitudinal melanonychia (P = 0.187), family history (P = 0.552), treatment sessions (P = 0.567) or multiple macule lesions (P = 0.497). Compared with treatment with surgical excision, the odds ratio of recurrence for treatment with QSAL was 4.41, with a 95% confidence interval of 1.27-15.24 (P = 0.020). In the surgical excision group, 3 patients (18.75%) reported depressions and scars on the lesion, while no long-term adverse reactions (0%) were reported in the QSAL group (P = 0.019). Conclusion Compared with surgical excision, the advantage of QSAL is the low long-term adverse reaction rate, while the disadvantage is the relatively high one-year recurrence rate. It is necessary to communicate the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods with OMM patients to assist in clinical decision-making.
Objective To research the effectiveness of deep learning techniques in intelligently diagnosing dental caries and periapical periodontitis and to explore the preliminary application value of deep learning in the diagnosis of oral diseases. Methods A dataset containing 2 298 periapical films, including healthy teeth, dental caries, and periapical periodontitis, was used for the study. The dataset was randomly divided into 1 573 training images, 233 validation images, and 492 test images. By comparing various neural network models, the MobileNetV3 network model with better performance was selected for dental disease diagnosis, and the model was optimized by tuning the network hyperparameters. The accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score were used to evaluate the model's ability to recognize dental caries and periapical periodontitis. Class activation map was used to visualization analyze the performance of the network model. Results The algorithm achieved a relatively ideal intelligent diagnostic effect with precision, recall, and accuracy of 99.42%, 99.73%, and 99.60%, respectively, and the F1 score was 99.57% for classifying healthy teeth, dental caries, and periapical periodontitis. The visualization of the class activation maps also showed that the network model can accurately extract features of dental diseases. Conclusion The tooth lesion detection algorithm based on the MobileNetV3 network model can eliminate interference from image quality and human factors and has high diagnostic accuracy, which can meet the needs of dental medicine teaching and clinical applications.
Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy and effects of periodontal endoscope (PE)-assisted subgingival scaling and root planning (SRP) and traditional SRP on the psychological and quality of life of patients with periodontitis. Methods This study was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee, and informed consent was obtained from the patients. Patients with periodontitis who were treated in the Department of Periodontology, Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University from April 2018 to December 2022 with residual periodontal pockets (PD ≥ 5 mm) 6 weeks after traditional SRP treatment were enrolled, and the residual periodontal pockets were further treated with PE-assisted SRP (PE+SRP). After 6 weeks of traditional SRP treatment and 3 months of PE+SRP treatment, clinical indicators, including plaque index (PLI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP), were measured, and periodontal tissue self-awareness scale scores, oral health impact profile-14 (OHIP-14) score and dental fear scale (DFS) score were collected. Moreover, visual analog scale (VAS) scores were collected after traditional SRP and PE-assisted SRP treatments. Results Twenty-three patients with periodontitis, including 832 sites of 486 affected teeth, were included in the clinical study. Three months after PE+SRP treatment, all clinical periodontal indicators, PLI (t = 9.254, P<0.001), PD (t = 50.724, P<0.001), CAL (t = 22.407, P<0.001) and BOP (t = 9.217, P<0.001), were significantly improved. Compared with traditional SRP (VAS: 2.48 ± 1.70), the pain caused by PE+SRP (VAS: 2.57±1.80) was not significantly different (t = 0,192, P = 0.850). There was no significant difference in the scores of the periodontal tissue self-awareness scale between the two groups (t = 1.485, P = 0.152). The OHIP-14 (SRP: 12.13±7.63; PE+SRP: 10.26 ± 5.25, t = -1.589, P = 0.126) and DFS (SRP: 40.70 ± 12.63; SRP+PE: 41.57 ± 12.61, t = 0.404, P = 0.690) scores were not significantly different. Conclusion All clinical periodontal indicators were significantly improved after PE-assisted SRP treatment of residual periodontal pockets, and compared with traditional SRP, PE-assisted SRP had no negative impact on the quality of life or psychological status of patients with periodontitis. Therefore, PE+SRP can be promoted in clinical practice.
Objective To investigate the effect of the socket-shield technique (SST) concurrent with immediate implant placement and provisionalization (IIPP) in the aesthetic restoration of anterior teeth. Methods A case of maxillary anterior tooth stumps with a thin labial bone wall was treated with SST for preservation of labial soft and hard tissue fullness, combined with an immediate implant placement and immediate provisional crown for restoring the shape of the tooth and gingival molding. Results Immediate implant placement and provisionalization restored the morphology and function of the affected tooth in the shortest possible time. The patient's labial soft and hard tissue contours in the affected tooth area were well preserved in the 18-month follow-up after the application of the SST, which presented a better aesthetic result. The literature review indicates that the indications for SST are unrestorable maxillary anterior teeth, whose dental, periodontal and periapical tissues are healthy and intact. In the esthetic zone, root shielding is effective in maintaining the soft and hard tissue contour on the labial side of the implant. However, there is no consensus on the technical details of SST, such as the ideal coronal height and thickness of the shield, and the management of the gap between the shield and the implant. Thus, more clinical studies and histologic evidence are needed to provide a reference for clinical decision-making. In addition, digital technology can improve the accuracy of implant placement and shield preparation. Conclusion The correct application of SST combined with IIPP in the esthetic zone can ensure esthetic results. However, more high-quality evidence-based medical evidence is needed for its long-term efficacy, and indications should be strictly controlled during clinical application.
The high incidence and untreated rate of root caries, a common and frequently occurring oral disease with challenging treatment in elderly individuals, is the main cause of tooth loss among elderly people, as rapid development results in pulpitis and periapical periodontitis or residual crown and root, which has been regarded as one of the common chronic oral diseases seriously affecting the quality of life of elderly people. Thus, early intervention and prevention are important. Traditional dental materials for preventing root caries have been widely used in clinical practice; however, they have the disadvantages of tooth coloring, remineralization and low sterilization efficiency. A series of new dental materials for preventing root caries have gradually become a research hotspot recently, which have the advantages of promoting the mineralization of deep dental tissue, prolonging the action time and enhancing adhesion. Future caries prevention materials should be designed according to the characteristics of root surface caries and the application population and should be developed toward simplicity, high efficiency and low toxicity. This review describes current research regarding anti-caries prevention material application, serving as a theoretical underpinning for the research of root caries prevention materials, which is important for both promotion in the effective prevention of root caries and improvement in the status of oral health and the quality of life among old people.
Tooth absorption can be divided into physiological absorption and pathological absorption. Root absorption of mature deciduous teeth is physiological absorption. Pathological absorption includes internal absorption and external absorption. Internal absorption, also known as intramedullary absorption, includes inflammatory absorption and alternative absorption. External tooth absorption originates from the outer surface of the root or the neck of the tooth and can be divided into inflammatory absorption, alternative absorption, pressure resorption and invasive cervical resorption. Invasive cervical resorption (ICR) is pathological damage caused by many factors, which usually begins in the cemento-enamel junction and extends peripherally or horizontally in the dentin. It hardly invades the pulp. Orthodontic devices, trauma, bleaching, systemic diseases, and the use of certain medications can all lead to invasive cervical resorption. The clinical manifestations of ICR are usually asymptomatic or not obvious, and most of which are found in imaging examinations. Because caries and internal absorption are often misdiagnosed through plain apical radiography, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) can help to better understand the situation of invasive cervical resorption. Because the pathogenesis and etiology of invasive cervical resorption are not fully understood, clinical negligence and inadequate treatment of invasive cervical resorption can even cause unnecessary tooth loss. This article reviews the latest research progress on the histopathologic features, pathogenic mechanism, susceptibility factors, diagnosis and treatment of ICR, with special emphasis on susceptibility factors and their mechanisms.
Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) have the potential for multidirectional differentiation and are the preferred seed cells for periodontal tissue regeneration. In recent years, a large number of studies have confirmed that PDLSCs also possess broad immunomodulatory properties. Therefore, in-depth exploration of their specific molecular mechanisms is of great significance for the treatment of periodontitis. The aim of this paper is to summarize the research progress on the regulation of PDLSCs on various immune cells and the effect of the inflammatory environment on the immune characteristics of PDLSCs to provide an important theoretical basis for the allotransplantation of PDLSCs and improve the therapeutic effect of periodontal tissue regeneration. Studies have shown that PDLSCs possess a certain degree of immunosuppressive effect on both innate and acquired immune cells, and inflammatory stimulation may lead to the impairment of the immunoregulatory properties of PDLSCs. However, current studies are mainly limited to in vitro cell tests and lack in-depth studies on the immunomodulatory effects of PDLSCs in vivo. In vivo studies based on cell lineage tracing and conditional gene knockout technology may become the main directions for future research.
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