Ideal sutures can provide great fixation, wound closure and a stable environment for healing of the surgical site. Tension-free apposition sutures are important for tissue regeneration and could tackle insufficient amounts of soft and hard tissue, especially in missing tooth sites that require implantation. The internal horizontal mattress suture, similar to the conventional horizontal mattress suture, forms a rectangle that can be bisected by the incision with both intrusion and extrusion of the needle on each side. On the basis of the rectangle, the internal horizontal mattress suture emphasizes that the suture should be located below the incision, so the eversion of the wound margin is the highlight of this procedure. The internal horizontal mattress suture could stabilize the graft on the targeting tissue, realize the fixation of the collagen membrane, apically repositioned flap and soft tissue graft, reduce the tension on the incision, and further release the tension of the incision margin. Beyond the primary need for fixation and wound closure, internal horizontal mattress sutures can also achieve stress interruption that reduces the interference of the surrounding muscle and can better master wound tension with the assistance of interrupted sutures. Given the above advantages, horizontal internal mattress sutures have great potential in the application of implant-related regenerative surgery. In this review, according to our experience in clinical practice and the literature, we summarize the advantages of internal horizontal mattress sutures in tissue augmentation. In addition, the sites and sequence to insert the needle and the spatial relationship between the suture and incision are clarified with the rationale of the naming pattern, which is conducive to experience exchange and clinical practice.
Objective To explore the biological effects of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) with different high intensities on condylar cartilage in rats. Methods SD rats were randomly divided into a sham group (Sham) and an irradiation group (EMP1: 500 kV/m, 10 Hz; EMP2: 270 kV/m, 10 Hz). Then, they were sacrificed at 1 h, 3 h, 12 h, 24 h and 3 d after irradiation. The degree of cartilage degeneration was evaluated by HE, safranine O-fast green, type Ⅱ collagen immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining. Immunohistochemistry and western blot were performed to detect the expression of the matrix degradation factors: matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS-5) and the apoptosis key factor cleaved-cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase (cleaved-Caspase3) in condylar cartilage. Results HE staining showed that, compared with the Sham group, a small amount of exfoliation was found on the fibrous surface layer of the cartilage after irradiation in the EMP1 and EMP2 groups. Compared with the Sham group, the percentage of safranine O-fast green-positive area decreased significantly at 12 h and 24 h (both P<0.01) in the EMP1 group and 12 h and 24 h in the EMP2 group (both P<0.05); the percentage of type Ⅱ collagen-positive area decreased significantly at 3 h and 12 h (P<0.05, P<0.001) in the EMP1 group. In addition, the number of TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells increased significantly at 1 h, 3 h, 12 h, and 24 h in the EMP1 group and 1 h, 3 h, and 12 h in the EMP2 group (P<0.05). Moreover, at different timepoints (except at 3 d) in the EMP1 group and EMP2 group, the percentage of MMP-13, ADAMTS-5- and cleaved Caspase3-positive chondrocytes and their protein levels in condylar cartilage increased significantly after irradiation (P<0.05). Conclusion EMP with a certain degree of high-intensity can induce early transient damage to condylar cartilage. This effect is dose-and time-dependent.
Objective To investigate the outcomes of a novel direct pulp capping agent containing platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Methods A total of 32 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups, namely, the PRF+MTA group (P+M group), PRF group (P group), MTA group (M group) and blank control group (BC group), with 8 rabbits per group. Dental pulp exposure and direct pulp capping were performed, and complete crown square sealing was performed on 2 mandibular central incisor teeth of each rabbit. Four rabbits from each group were euthanized after each observation period (7 and 28 days). The experimental teeth were subjected to HE staining. Inflammatory cell infiltration, calcified bridge formation and pulp tissue disorganization were observed and graded. Results Inflammatory cell infiltration: on the 7th day, group P+M and group M were lighter than group BC (P<0.05); on the 28th day, group P+M was lighter than group P and group BC (P<0.05); group P+M and group M did not significantly differ (P>0.05). Calcified bridge formation: on the 7th and 28th days, group P+M was lighter than group P, group M and group BC (P<0.05); on the 28th day, group M was higher than group BC (P<0.05). Under microscope, the calcified bridge contained cellular components and was surrounded by odontoblast-like cells, sharing a structure resembled osteodentin; dentin tubule-like structure could not be observed in calcified bridge, and the calcified bridge resembled certain points of osteodentin. Pulp tissue disorganization: on the 7th day, group P+M and group M were lighter than group BC (P<0.05); on the 28th day, group P+M was lighter than group P and group BC (P<0.05). group P+M and group M did not significantly differ (P>0.05). Conclusion The combination of PRF and MTA for direct pulp capping provided light inflammatory cell infiltration, stable pulp status and a strong ability of pulp tissue to form calcified bridge, and the calcified bridge resembled certain points of osteodentin.
Objective To explore dental caries-related factors among children aged 3-5 years in Urumqi City and to provide evidence for the etiological study and primary prevention of caries among local children. Methods A multistage stratified cluster sampling method was used to randomly select children aged 3-5 years in Urumqi City for oral examination, physical examination and questionnaire survey. Data were collected and analyzed by principal component logistic regression using SPSS 23.0 software. Results Principal component analysis showed that there were seven risk factors whose characteristic root value was greater than 1: oral hygiene habits, family education level, sugar intake, bedtime eating habits, age, gestational age, feeding mode, and cumulative contribution were 66.486% of the total variance. Principal component logistic regression analysis indicated that five factors, namely, oral hygiene habits (OR = 0.795, P = 0.044), family education level (OR = 0.667, P = 0.019), sugar intake (OR = 1.260, P = 0.006), bedtime eating habits (OR = 5.432, P<0.001) and age (OR = 0.676, P = 0.015), were closely related to early childhood caries, and they were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion According to the principal component analysis, oral hygiene habits factor, family education level factor, sugar intake factor, bedtime eating habits factor and age factor were dental caries related factors among 3- to 5-year-old children in Urumqi City.
Objective To explore the prognostic value of chemoradiotherapy based on the depth of invasion (DOI) in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Methods Patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma who received surgical treatment in a hospital from 2008 to 2016 were enrolled. The chi-square test was used to compare the effects of DOI on postoperative cervical lymph node metastasis and local recurrence. The effects of chemoradiotherapy on postoperative cervical lymph node metastasis, local recurrence, and survival were analyzed based on the DOI. Results A total of 111 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma were included in this study. The postoperative local recurrence rate (P<0.05) and cervical lymph node metastasis rate (P<0.05) of patients with 5 mm < DOI ≤ 10 mm and DOI > 10 mm were significantly higher than those with DOI ≤ 5 mm. The time of postoperative recurrence was concentrated within two years after the operation. The greater the DOI was, the shorter the time to postoperative recurrence (P<0.05). The addition of postoperative chemoradiotherapy did not significantly improve the postoperative local recurrence rate, cervical lymph node metastasis or survival rate of patients with different DOIs (P > 0.05). Conclusion DOI has important predictive value for postoperative recurrence, cervical lymph node metastasis and survival rate. However, DOI cannot be used as an independent index to guide whether chemoradiotherapy is needed after oral cancer surgery.
Objective To discuss the treatment of pneumoparotid and to provide a reference for clinical practice. Methods A case of refractory pneumoparotid was reported, and the diagnosis and treatment of parotid emphysema were reviewed and analyzed in combination with the literature. Results This child had parotid gland enlargement without any obvious cause for more than 1 month. Conservative treatment, such as anti-inflammatory agents, psychological interventions and physical compression were ineffective. The patient had a history of cerebral palsy with epilepsy and involuntary cheek bulging behavior. Therefore, we considered it a refractory case. It was cured after parotid duct ligation and partial parotidectomy of the superficial lobe. A literature review showed that a pneumoparotid is a rare parotid enlargement. Most of the clinical cases were considered to be caused by the return of air into the parotid gland through the parotid duct due to an increase in oral pressure. The diagnosis of pneumoparotid mainly depends on intermittent parotid gland swelling and other clinical manifestations and imaging examination methods, such as ultrasound, CT, MRI and angiography. Its treatment mainly includes conservative anti-inflammatory treatment, physical therapy and psychological intervention. Surgical treatment is indicated for refractory parotid emphysema. Conclusion Pneumoparotid cases may further develop into parotid inflammation, which is generally treated conservatively. For some severe, recurrent and poor compliance cases, surgical treatment is sometimes needed.
Objective To investigate the clinical manifestations, pathological features, and treatment of oral and maxillofacial pyogenic granulomas induced by camrelizumab. Methods A case of pyogenic granuloma of the gums and lips caused by camrelizumab was reported along with a literature review. Results After 4 months of treatment with camrelizumab for liver cancer, the patient developed systemic reactive capillary hyperplasia (RCH), followed by multiple masses on the lower lip and gingiva. After periodontal therapy, the masses on the lower lip and the gingiva were removed, and camrelizumab administration was stopped. The pathological result was gingival pyogenic granuloma/granulomatous hemangioma. No new masses were found in the oral cavity during postoperative follow-up. A review of the literature showed that RCH is the most common adverse drug reaction to camrelizumab but it occurs infrequently in the oral cavity. At present, the etiology of RCH has not been clarified, but the research has shown that camrelizumab may trigger tissue proliferation into hemangiomas by activating vascular endothelial cells, and the combined use of camrelizumab is safer than single use. RCH is self-limiting and most cases resolve spontaneously after discontinuation of the drug. If the mass causes dysfunction, surgical excision is feasible. Conclusion Camrelizumab can cause oral and maxillofacial reactive capillary hyperplasia complicated by pyogenic granuloma.
Gingival pigmentation is a nonplaque gum disease. Patients are often afraid to communicate with others because of gum color problems, which affect the social and mental health of patients. The commonly used treatment methods for gingival pigmentation include scalpel excision, gingival grinding, laser therapy, cryosurgery and electrosurgery. In this paper, the progress of gingival pigmentation treatment was reviewed in terms of bleeding, pain, tissue healing and recoloring. The results showed that the clinical effect of laser treatment was better. Among them, the semiconductor laser had more advantages in reducing bleeding, pain and the restaining rate, while the Er:Cr:YSSG/Er:YAG laser performed better for promoting tissue healing. Clinicians can choose the best kind of laser to use according to the actual situation. For patients with thin gingival biotypes, floating gingival transplantation or substitute materials can be selected to restore the gingival morphology. With the in-depth study of melanin regulation mechanisms, various drugs, such as ascorbic acid, natural peptides, synthetic peptides and derivatives, may be the main research direction for the treatment of gingival pigmentation in the future.
Metabolomics reflects the endogenous metabolite changes in organisms through qualitative and quantitative detection of small molecules in biological samples, revealing the metabolic changes during disease development. Metabolomic studies of periodontitis further elucidate the etiology, diagnosis and predictive markers of periodontitis at the levels of metabolites and metabolic pathways. In this paper, the concept and research methods of metabonomics were summarized, and the current status of the metabonomics of saliva and gingival crevicular fluid in the study of periodontitis was reviewed. Previous studies have shown that metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids and amino acids and metabolic pathways such as glutamic acid and pyrimidine metabolism might promote the occurrence of periodontitis, and it was suggested that lactic acid, γ-amino-butyrate, butyric acid and lysophosphatidic acid might be potential diagnostic markers of periodontitis. The metabolomics study of periodontitis still faces challenges such as high heterogeneity of results and fluctuation of metabolites. In the future, its study could be optimized through multicenter prospective studies to provide fresh approaches for the etiology and diagnosis of periodontitis.
Basic research on pulp regeneration requires in vivo experiments. The PubMed database was searched for in vivo models of stem cell-based pulp regeneration using the following keywords: "pulp regeneration", "stem cell" and "animal model". The retrieved models were classified into ectopic, semiorthotopic and orthotopic regeneration models and their characteristics and clinical values were reviewed. This literature review indicated that the ectopic regeneration model is the most widely used model for the simple steps. However, this model does not accurately capture clinical situations. The semiorthotopic regeneration model, which is an improvement of the ectopic regeneration model, can create a more realistic regeneration environment. The orthotopic regeneration model can simulate clinical procedures that more closely resemble application, but it is less commonly used for difficult operations and long experimental periods. The applicability of the above three animal models depend on the stage of the animal experiment: the ectopic regeneration model is suitable to test the regenerative effect and biocompatibility of the implant complex; the semiorthotopic regeneration model is suitable to more persuasively evaluate the regeneration effect of the implant complex; and the orthotopic regeneration model is suitable to confirm the regeneration effect and practicability of the regenerative implant complex prior to clinical study.
Ferroptosis is a newly discovered method of programmed cell death. Current studies have shown that activation of ferroptosis-related pathways can inhibit the growth and proliferation of tumor cells and reverse their drug resistance. Oral cancer is a common malignant tumor with a high recurrence rate and high drug resistance. Inducing ferroptosis is a potential treatment strategy. There are still many uncertainties in the application of ferroptosis in the treatment of oral cancer, which need to be further explored. This article systematically introduces the mechanism of ferroptosis and its recent progress in oral cancer treatment to provide new mechanisms and methods for the clinical treatment of oral cancer. Current research shows that the mechanism of ferroptosis is mainly related to amino acid metabolism, Fe2+ metabolism, and lipid metabolism. Ferroptosis in oral cancer cells can reverse drug resistance in cancer cells and improve the activity of immune cells. New drugs, such as curcumin analogs and triptolide, can induce ferroptosis in oral cancer, and the development of nanomaterials has improved the utilization rate of drugs. Inhibiting the expression of the ferroptosis-related factors SLC7A11, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and ferritin heavy chain 1 (FTH1) can promote ferroptosis in oral cancer cells. It is a potential target for the clinical treatment of oral cancer, but its translation into clinical practice still needs further research.
Selective tooth agenesis (STA) is an abnormal number of teeth due to genetic factors or the environment and is most commonly observed for permanent teeth. LRP6 is one of the common causative genes of STA and is inherited by an autosomal dominant mechanism, leading to non-syndrome tooth agenesis (NSTA) or syndrome tooth agenesis (STA). NSTA is only involved in tooth number and appearance abnormalities, whereas STA caused by LRP6 gene mutation results abnormal ear development, oral-facial clefting, sparse hair and hypohidrosis. In this paper, we review the phenotype and gene mutation traits of selective STA caused by LRP6 gene mutation identified in recent years and describe 38 patients with tooth agenesis from 24 mutation sites of LRP6 gene. We analyzed the percentage of missing teeth and found that the lateral incisor in the maxilla and the second premolar in the maxilla and mandible were most commonly lost, whereas all central incisors in the maxilla remained. LRP6 gene plays a major role in tooth development via the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, and LRP6 gene mutation can lead to a series of abnormal manifestations due to the disruption of the signaling pathway. The literature showed that LRP6 gene mutations occurred mostly at the E1 or E2 subdomain, meaning that STA due to the mutants extracellularly disturbed the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway. However, mature treatments for selective congenital tooth loss are lacking.