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  • Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases. 2024, 32(3): 160-160.
  • Expert Forum
    ZHANG Yufeng, ZHANG Xiaoxin
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases. 2024, 32(3): 161-168. https://doi.org/10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2024.03.001

    After tooth extraction, significant absorption occurs in the soft and hard tissues of the alveolar ridge. The goal of alveolar ridge preservation is to maintain the volume and shape of the alveolar ridge's soft and hard tissues as much as possible so as to provide suitable conditions for implant placement. Currently, there are challenges in classifying the socket for alveolar ridge preservation, such as the difficulty in directly guiding the selection of graft materials and clinical procedures and the insufficient space for particle xenograft maintenance, resulting in poor bone regeneration. Plasmatrix is an autologous blood derivative that effectively enhances tissue regeneration. This article introduced the characteristics of soft and hard tissue defects after tooth extraction and the primary applications of plasmatrix for alveolar ridge preservation (liquid plasmatrix, solid plasmatrix membrane/plug, and plasmatrix bone blocks) as well as the proposed methods for the reclassification of sockets for alveolar ridge preservation based on soft and hard tissue defects at the extraction site to facilitate the creation of clinical recommendations. The proposed classifications are as follows: Class I, extraction socket without bone defect, with or without soft tissue defect; Class Ⅱ, extraction socket with bone defect, both sides with bone wall defect less than 50%, with or without soft tissue defect; Class Ⅲ, extraction socket with bone tissue defect, at least one side with bone wall defect greater than 50%, with or without soft tissue defect. For the Class I socket, a solid plasmatrix membrane or plug is inserted, followed by injection of liquid plasmatrix, using a double-layer solid plasmatrix membrane for socket closure; for the ClassⅡ socket, plasmatrix bone blocks are inserted, followed by injection of liquid plasmatrix and secondary solidification, using absorbable collagen membrane and double-layer solid plasmatrix membrane for socket closure; for the ClassⅢ socket, tenting screws are used to maintain height, followed by implantation of plasmatrix bone blocks, injection of liquid plasmatrix and secondary solidification, using absorbable collagen membrane and double-layer solid plasmatrix membrane for socket closure. The aim of this article is to provide comprehensive knowledge of plasmatrix for oral clinicians to serve as a reference to simplify the clinical decision-making process and procedures for alveolar ridge preservation.

  • Basic Study
    CAI Dongxuan, LI Yi, WANG Lan, ZHANG Yan, LI Guangwen, ZHANG Yumei
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases. 2024, 32(3): 169-177. https://doi.org/10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2024.03.002

    Objective To investigate the effects of electrochemically dealloying of Ti6Al4V abutments on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and to provide experimental evidence for surface modification of implant abutments. Methods The samples were divided into an NC group (negative control, no other treatment on a smooth surface), an NM-1 group (nanomesh-1, electrochemical dealloying treatment in 1 mol/L NaOH 1 h on 2 V voltage), and an NM-2 group (nanomesh-2, electrochemical dealloying treatment in 5 mol/L NaOH 1 h on 2 V voltage). The surface morphologies of the samples and the adhesion of HGFs on the sample surfaces were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface hydrophilicities of the samples were measured with a contact angle measuring instrument. The proliferation of HGFs on the different samples were evaluated with CCK-8, and the expression of adhesion-related genes, including collagen Ⅰ (COL1A1), collagen Ⅲ (COL3A1), fibronectin 1 (FN1), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), vinculin (VCL), integrin α2 (ITGA2), and integrin β1 (ITGB1), on the different samples was measured with qRT-PCR. The expression of vinculin on the surfaces of HGFs was observed via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) after immunofluorescent staining. Collagen fiber secretion and syntheses of HGFs from different samples were evaluated via Sirius red staining. Results SEM revealed the formation of ordered and uniform three-dimensional mesh structures on the surfaces of the NM-1 and NM-2 groups, with grid diameters of approximately 30 nm for the NM-1 group and approximately 150 nm for the NM-2 group. Compared with that of the NC group, the water contact angles of the NM-1 group and NM-2 groups were significantly lower (P<0.000 1). Cell proliferation in the NM-1 group was significantly greater than that in the NC group (P<0.01). Moreover, there was no significant difference in the water contact angles or cell proliferation between the NM-1 group and the NM-2 group. SEM revealed that HGFs were adhered well to the surfaces of all samples, while the HGFs in the NM-1 and NM-2 groups showed more extended areas, longer morphologies, and more developed pseudopodia than did those in the NC group after 24 h. qRT-PCR revealed that the expression levels of the adhesion-related genes COL1A1, COL3A1, FN1, FAK and VCL in the NM-1 group were significantly greater than those in the NC and NM-2 groups (P<0.01). The expression of vinculin protein in the NM-1 group was the highest, and the number of focal adhesions was greatest in the NM-1 group (P<0.01). The results of Sirius red staining showed that the NM-1 group had the highest secretion and syntheses of collagen fibers (P<0.000 1). Conclusion The three-dimensional nanomechanical structure of Ti6Al4V modified by electrochemical dealloying promoted the adhesion, proliferation, collagen fiber secretion and syntheses of HGFs, and electrochemical dealloying of Ti6Al4V with a grid diameter of approximately 30 nm obviously promoted HGF formation.

  • Basic Study
    CHEN Hongjun, LEI Qi, WANG Zhilin, ZHONG Xiaowu, QIU Ya, LI Lihua
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases. 2024, 32(3): 178-187. https://doi.org/10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2024.03.003

    Objective To explore the molecular mechanism of resveratrol (RES) in the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) through the use of biological information methods such as network pharmacology and molecular docking and to provide a theoretical reference for the clinical application of RES in the treatment of OSCC. Methods The Swiss Target Prediction(http://www.swisstargetprediction.ch), SEA (http://sea.bkslab.org)database, and Pharm mapper database(http://lilab-ecust.cn) were used to retrieve RES-related targets, and the DISGENET (www.disgenet.org), OMIM (https://omim.org) and GeneCards (https://www.genecards.org) databases were used to screen OSCC disease targets. The intersection of drugs and disease targets was determined, and Cytoscape 3.7.2 software was used to construct a "drug-diseasetarget pathway" network. The Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) database was used to construct a target protein interaction network, and the DAVID database was used for enrichment analysis of key proteins. Finally, molecular docking validation of key proteins was performed using AutoDock and PyMOL. The enrichment analysis and molecular docking results were integrated to predict the possible molecular mechanisms of RES treatment in OSCC; western blot was used to determine the effect of resveratrol at different concentrations (50, 100) μmol/L on the expression of Src tyrosine kinase (SRC), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), estrogen receptor gene 1 (ESR1), and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathway proteins in OSCC HSC-3 cells. Results A total of 243 targets of RES drugs and 6 094 targets of OSCC were identified. A total of 116 potential common targets were obtained by intersecting drugs with disease targets. These potential targets mainly participate in biological processes such as in vivo protein self-phosphorylation, peptide tyrosine phosphorylation, transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, and positive regulation of RNA polymerase Ⅱ promoter transcription, and they interfere with the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to exert anti-OSCC effects. The docking results of resveratrol with OSCC molecules indicated that key targets, such as EGFR, ESR1, and SRC, have good binding activity. The results of cell-based experiments showed that resveratrol inhibited the protein expression of SRC, EGFR, ESR1, p-PI3K, and p-AKT in HSC-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion RES can inhibit the expression of its targets EGFR, ESR1, SRC, p-PI3K, and p-AKT in OSCC cells.

  • Basic Study
    WANG Songqing, KANG Fujia, YUAN Jiamin, ZHU Xianchun
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases. 2024, 32(3): 188-195. https://doi.org/10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2024.03.004

    Objective To explore the effect of different miniscrew placement heights on the distribution of biological forces produced by clear aligner combined with intramaxillary traction for mandibular molar distalization, to identify the miniscrew location that is conducive to the protection of lower anterior tooth anchorage and to provide a reference that can be used when designing clinical treatments. Methods Mimics, GeomagicStudio 2017, SolidWorks 2016, and Ansys workbench were used to establish finite element analysis models and perform mechanical analysis under the following six working conditions: working condition 1 was the control group without miniscrews; working conditions 2 to 5 had miniscrew in the buccal bone cortex between the first and second molars of the lower jaw 10 mm, 7 mm, 4 mm, and 1 mm from the top of the alveolar crest, respectively; working condition 6 had the miniscrew in the center of the buccal tongue at the anterior edge of the ascending branch of the lower jaw 5 mm above the occlusal plane. Results On the sagittal axis, miniscrew anchorage caused distal displacement of all teeth. Compared to the control group, in the miniscrew group, the displacement of the anterior molars exceeded that of the second molars. On the vertical axis, the result in the control group was similar to backward bending; the results in the miniscrew groups resembled the effect of a lever, lowering the lateral incisors and canines and raising the central incisors and first premolars. On the coronal axis, the second premolars and the first molars showed lingual displacement in the control group, and only the premolars and first molars showed lingual displacementin the miniscrew groups. The canines were the teeth that were most strongly affected by the change in miniscrew placement height. Conclusion The higher the miniscrew position is, the stronger the protective effect on the anterior anchorage. According to the miniscrew placement height, the mandibular arch should be properly narrowed, the central incisors and first premolars should be lowered, and the lateral incisors and canines should be raised when designing clinical treatments.

  • Clinical Study
    REN Qingyuan, BAO Lina, ZHOU Mengjiao, WU Chunlan
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases. 2024, 32(3): 196-201. https://doi.org/10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2024.03.005

    Objective This study aimed to explore the root length of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth and central incisor crown-root morphology in patients with high-angle skeletal Class Ⅱ open bite, aiming to provide a reference for clinical treatment. Methods This study was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee, and informed consent was obtained from the patients. CBCT images of eighty-one untreated patients (40 anterior open bite patients and 41 normal overbite patients) with high-angle skeletal Class Ⅱ malocclusion were selected before treatment. Dolphin software was used to study the root length of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth and central incisor crown-root morphology, and the differences between the two groups were analyzed. Results There was no statistical significance in the root length of maxillary lateral incisor and canine between the open bite group and the normal overbite group, significant differences were found in the root length of maxillary central incisor (11.12 ± 1.37) mm、mandibular central incisor(10.15 ± 1.09)mm, mandibular lateral incisor(11.27 ± 1.15)mm and mandibular canine(12.81 ± 1.48)mm between the open bite group and the normal overbite group(P<0.05). On the other hand, the two groups were significantly different in crown-root morphology of the maxillary central incisor (1.10° ± 3.62° vs. 4.53° ± 2.30°, P<0.01) but not in the mandibular central incisor. Conclusion The root length of the maxillary central incisor, mandibular central incisor, mandibular lateral incisor, mandibular canine in high-angle Class Ⅱ open bite patients is shorter than that in high-angle Class Ⅱ normal overbite patients, and the long axis of the crown of the maxillary central incisor in high-angle Class Ⅱ open bite patients obviously deviates toward the labial side relative to the long axis of the root. The crown-root angle is smaller, which is beneficial to torque control or adduction movement of the anterior teeth in high-angle Class Ⅱ open bite patients.

  • Clinical Study
    ZHU Yunying, LIU Yun, XU Ting, LIU Zhenzhen, CAO Shaoping, WANG Zhangsong, WU Donghui
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases. 2024, 32(3): 202-208. https://doi.org/10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2024.03.006

    Objective To investigate the clinical effects of sinus elevation surgery and implant restorationdue to insufficient bone massafter tooth extraction in patients with odontogenic maxillary sinusitis (OMS) and to provide a reference for use in clinical practice. Methods This study was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee, and informed consent was obtained from the patients. Forty-five teeth were extracted from patients with OMS in the maxillary posterior area (the study group). Sinus elevation and implantation were performed due to insufficient bone height in the implant area 6-8 months after tooth extraction in the study group. Forty-eight teeth were extracted from patients without "OMS" in the maxillary posterior area (the control group), and sinus elevation and implantation were performed due to insufficient bone height in the implant area 6-8 months after tooth extraction inthe control group. In the study group, 13 cases of discontinuous maxillary sinus floor bone and residual alveolar bone height of the maxillary sinus floor less than 4 mm were addressed with lateral wall sinus elevation, and the other 32 cases were addressed with crest-approach sinus elevation. In the control group, 8 cases of residual alveolar bone height less than 4 mm in the maxillary sinus floor were addressed with lateral wall sinus,and the other 40 cases were addressed with crest approach sinus elevation. Restorations were placed 6 to 8 months after surgery. The patients were followed up 21 days, 3 months, and 8 months after implantation and every 6 months after the placement of the restorations. The sinus bone gain (SBG), apical bone height (ABL) and marginal bone loss (MBL) were statistically analyzed 24 months after the restoration. Results The average preoperative mucosal thickness in the 45 patients in the study group was (1.556 ± 0.693) mm, which was significantly larger than that in the control group (1.229 ± 0.425) mm (P<0.001). There were no perforations in either group. Twenty-four months after restoration, there was no significant difference in the SBG, ABH or MBL between the two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion After the extraction of teeth from patients with OMS, the inflammation of the maxillary sinus decreased, and the bone height and density in the edentulous area were restored to a certain degree. The effects of sinus floor lifting surgery and implant restoration do not differ between patients with and without OMS.

  • Clinical Study
    XIE Peili, GUO Chenmiao, YU Ting
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases. 2024, 32(3): 209-215. https://doi.org/10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2024.03.007

    Objective To evaluate the bidirectional association between periodontitis and Sjögren's syndrome using the Mendelian randomization (MR) method. Methods Genome-wide association study (GWAS) data of periodontitis (N = 45 563) and Sjögren's syndrome (N = 214 435) were selected to meet the requirements of the same ethnicity and different regions. Inverse variance-weighted (IVW), MR-Egger, and weighted median (WM) tests were used to evaluate the causal effect. Cochran's Q statistics, MR-Egger intercept, MR-PRESSO and leave-one-out analysis were used as sensitivity analyses to assess the stability and reliability of the results. Results After screening, the GWAS data of Sjögren's syndrome were based on the Finnish region, and the periodontitis GWAS data were based on the UK region, both of which originated from European ancestry. Using IVW (OR = 1.017, 95% CI = 0.956-1.082), MR-Egger (OR = 0.985, 95% CI= 0.956-1.082), and WM (OR =1.021, 95% CI = 0.948-1.099), no causal effect of Sjögren's syndrome on periodontitis was found using any of the three methods. Conversely, no causal effect of periodontitis on Sjögren's syndrome was found (IVW, OR = 1.024, 95% CI = 0.852-1.230; MR-Egger, OR = 0.978, 95% CI = 0.789-1.212; WM, OR = 1.024, 95% CI = 0.846-1.260). The sensitivity analyses indicated that the results were stable and reliable. Cochran's Q test and MR-PRESSO revealed that there was no significant heterogeneity among the instrumental variables, which included single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The intercept of MR-Egger regression indicated no pleiotropy in the included SNPs. No individual SNP was found that significantly affected the results using the leave-one-out method. Conclusion This study does not support a bidirectional causal effect between periodontitis and Sjögren's syndrome.

  • Prevention and Treatment Practice
    YANG Zhenghao, ZHU Xiting, LI Chen, ZHOU Min, GAN Xueqi
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases. 2024, 32(3): 216-222. https://doi.org/10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2024.03.008

    Objective To explore an accurate method to obtain an intraoral model of patients with specific limited mouth opening (microstomia) due to systemic scleroderma. Methods This study followed medical ethics, and informed consent has been obtained from patients. A case of Ken's Type I mandibular dentition defect scleroderma with limited mouth opening was addressed with digital technology as the leading method combined with the traditional impression method of segmental impression. Individual trays were made based on the patient's left and right mandibular dentition, and segmented molds were obtained. Simultaneously, intraoral scanning was performed to obtain the morphological data of both the soft and hard tissues of the upper and lower mandibles. After each part of the model was obtained, the mandibular model was scanned and digitally aligned to form the final denture model, and the final removable partial denture was designed and made by computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. At the same time, combined with the literature, the diagnosis and treatment of removable partial denture in patients with limited mouth opening were retrospectively analyzed. Results The denture was well retained and achieved a good repair effect. The patients expressed satisfaction with the mastication efficiency and other functions of the denture. The findings of the literature review show that the integration of digital technology with the traditional impression method, along with computer fitting, can accurately obtain the patient's oral model and facilitate successful follow-up repairs. However, when the anterior mandibular dentition of the patient is absent, the margin of error is increased in this procedure, which deserves further exploration. Conclusion Utilizing digital technology as the leading method, combined with the traditional impression method of segmental impression, for the repair of dental defects in patients with limited mouth opening, has proven to be effective. Thus, patients report a positive medical experience with high satisfaction, indicating that this approach is worthy of clinical promotion.

  • Review Articles
    SHEN Yingyi, CAO Ximeng, XU chun
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases. 2024, 32(3): 223-228. https://doi.org/10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2024.03.009

    The identification of suitable seed cells represents a critical scientific problem to be solved in the field of oral and maxillofacial bone tissue regeneration. The application of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in tissue and organ repair and regeneration has been studied extensively. In recent years, dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells have also shown broad application prospects in the field of bone tissue engineering. DFAT cells express stem cell-related markers and have the potential to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, nerve cells, cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. In addition, DFAT cells also have the advantages of minimally invasive acquisition, strong proliferation and high homogeneity. Currently, all studies involving the application of DFAT cells in scaffold-based and scaffold-free bone tissue engineering can confirm their effectiveness in promoting bone regeneration. However, cytological research still faces some challenges, including relatively low cell culture purity, unclear phenotypic characteristics and undefined dedifferentiation mechanisms. It is believed that with the continuous development and improvement of isolation, culture, identification and directional induction of osteogenic differentiation methods, DFAT cells are expected to become excellent seed cells in the field of oral and maxillofacial bone tissue engineering in the future.

  • Review Articles
    YU Jinjin, ZHU Jianhui, WU Zhifang
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases. 2024, 32(3): 229-234. https://doi.org/10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2024.03.010

    The timely treatment of dental caries and pulp disease in primary teeth holds significant importance for maintaining children's oral health. Direct pulp capping (DPC) is a vital pulp treatment that involves covering the exposed pulp with bioactive materials to promote dentin bridge formation. DPC is commonly used in primary teeth with vital pulp and mechanical pulp exposure not exceeding 1 mm. DPC offers advantages such as minimal invasiveness, comfort, simplicity of operation and short chair-side time, making it suitable for pediatric dental clinical practice. Early studies suggested negative treatment outcomes for DPC in primary teeth with carious pulp exposure. Over the years, there have been advancements in materials and technology demonstrating positive outcomes in the clinical research of primary teeth with deep caries. However, due to the limited quality of related studies, DPC has not been widely recommended for the treatment of primary teeth with carious pulp exposure, and its widespread use needs further support by more high-quality evidence-based medical research. The success rate of DPC in primary teeth is influenced by factors including pulp status, clinical operations (such as isolation and caries removal), pulp capping material, cavity type, tooth position, coronal sealing, and dental fear. In clinical operation, dentists should accurately assess pulp status and minimize bacterial contamination. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a DPC agent with relatively sufficient evidence and good therapeutic effects, and the crown should be tightly sealed after pulp capping. Additionally, the effects of novel biocompatible materials such as iRoot BP Plus used in DPC of primary teeth, and the influence of other factors like hemostatic methods on the prognosis of affected teeth, need further exploration.

  • Review Articles
    NIE Min, XU Hongdan, WU Yafei, YANG Jingmei
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases. 2024, 32(3): 235-240. https://doi.org/10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2024.03.011

    Risk assessment models for periodontal disease provide dentists with a precise and consolidated evaluation of the prognosis of periodontitis, enabling the formulation of personalized treatment plans. Periodontal risk assessment systems have been widely applied in clinical practice and research. The application fields of periodontal risk assessment systems vary based on the distinctions between clinical periodontal parameters and risk factors. The assessment models listed below are commonly used in clinical practice, including the periodontal risk calculator (PRC), which is an individual-based periodontal risk assessment tool that collects both periodontal and systemic information for prediction; the periodontal assessment tool (PAT), which allows for quantitative differentiation of stages of periodontal disease; the periodontal risk assessment (PRA) and modified periodontal risk assessment (mPRA), which are easy to use; and the classification and regression trees (CART), which assess the periodontal prognosis based on a single affected tooth. Additionally, there are orthodontic-periodontal combined risk assessment systems and implant periapical risk assessment systems tailored for patients needing multidisciplinary treatment. This review focuses on the current application status of periodontal risk assessment systems.