口腔疾病防治 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (5): 327-330.DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2019.05.011

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

牙龈生物型的影响因素及评估方法

徐若男,古丽努尔·阿吾提()   

  1. 新疆医科大学第一附属医院,新疆医科大学附属口腔医院牙周黏膜科,新疆维吾尔自治区 乌鲁木齐(830000)
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-09 修回日期:2018-08-08 出版日期:2019-05-20 发布日期:2019-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 古丽努尔·阿吾提
  • 作者简介:徐若男,医师,在读硕士研究生,Email: 2206284415@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    新疆维吾尔族自治区自然科学基金项目(2016D01C251)

Influential factors and methods of evaluating the gingival biotype

XU Ruonan,Gulinuer AWUTI()   

  1. Periodontal and Mucosal Department, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Affiliated Stomatological Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi 830000, China
  • Received:2018-07-09 Revised:2018-08-08 Online:2019-05-20 Published:2019-05-20
  • Contact: AWUTI Gulinuer

摘要:

牙龈生物型(gingival biotype)用于描述牙周组织的形态学特征,根据牙龈的厚度,多将其分为薄龈型和厚龈型。其影响因素广泛,测量方法多样。在口腔治疗过程中,为达到良好的治疗效果,得到明确的预后判断,对牙龈生物型的了解就显得尤为重要。本文旨在对牙龈生物型的影响因素及评估方法做一综述。综述结果表明,牙龈生物型的影响因素包括与性别、年龄、民族相关的个体因素及与牙冠外形、牙体位置、牙槽骨厚度、角化龈宽度、龈乳头高度等相关的口腔软硬组织特征。厚龈型多出现在青年男性,同时含有牙冠呈方圆型、牙槽骨较厚及角化龈更宽等特征的人群。由于牙龈生物型的测量方法由以往常见的直接观察法,直接测量法、牙周探诊法向锥形束CT测量及超声测量等方法发展,使得测量更加准确。

关键词: 牙龈生物型, 牙龈厚度, 牙龈退缩, 牙槽骨, 牙周探诊, 锥形束CT, 超声测量

Abstract:

Gingival biotypes are used to describe the morphological characteristics of periodontal tissue. According to thickness, the gingiva can be divided into thin and thick gingival biotypes. The gingival biotype has a wide range of influential factors and can be measured by various methods. In the process of oral treatment, to achieve good therapeutic effects and obtain a clear prognosis, it is particularly important to study the gingival biotype. This article reviews the influential factors and methods for assessing the gingival biotype. The results of literature review show that, factors influencing the gingival biotype include individual factors related to sex, age and ethnicity and oral soft and hard tissue characteristics related to crown shape, tooth position, alveolar bone thickness, keratinized gingival width and gingival papilla height. Gingival hypertrophy mainly occurs in young males and in people with square and round crowns, thicker alveolar bones and wider keratinized gingiva. With the development of methods for measuring the gingival biotype ranging from the traditional direct observation method, direct measurement methods and periodontal exploration methods to cone beam computed tomography and ultrasound have increased the accuracy of these measurements.

Key words: Gingival biotype, Gingival thickness, Gingival recession, Alveolar bone, Periodontal probing, Cone beam computed tomography, Ultrasonic measurement

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