Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (3): 151-157.doi: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2018.03.003

• The Fourth National Epidemiological Survey of Oral Health • Previous Articles     Next Articles

A sampling survey of gingival bleeding and dental calculus in Guangdong Province (2015-2016)

Weihua FAN1(), Jianbo LI1, Wanghong ZHAO2, Ziqiang LIU1, Shaohong HUANG1()   

  1. 1. Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510280, China;
    2. Department of Stomatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University & Stomatological College of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510080, China;
  • Received:2017-10-24 Revised:2017-12-01 Online:2018-03-20 Published:2018-08-31

Abstract:

Objective To investigate the current status of gingival bleeding and dental calculus in the 12- to 74-year old population in Guangdong Province with the aim of providing information to support oral health care. Methods A stratified, multistage, random sampling design was used to obtain 7 provincially representative sample groups consisting of 8, 544 Guangdong residents aged 12, 13, 14, 15, 35-44, 55-64 and 65-74 years old with a 50/50 gender ratio. The status of gingival bleeding and dental calculus in the whole mouth was assessed according to the Guidelines of the Fourth National Oral Health Survey using a CPI probe. The resulting data were analyzed using the SAS9.2 package. Results The prevalence of gingival bleeding in residents aged 12, 13, 14, 15, 35-44, 55-64 and 65-74 years old was 43.75%, 42.76%, 49.06%, 39.38%, 81.94%, 90.97%, and 84.03%, respectively, while the average number of teeth with gingival bleeding per person was 1.95, 2.07, 2.59, 2.39, 9.62, 10.36, and 9.98, respectively. In the 12-, 13-, 14-, and 15-year-old groups, peak prevalence was observed at age 14 (P < 0.05). In the 35-74-year-old group, the prevalence and mean number of teeth with gingival bleeding per person increased with age, and both parameters reached a peak in the 55-64-year-old group. The prevalence of dental calculus in the 12-, 13-, 14-, 15-, 35-44-, 55-64- and 65-74-year-old group was 40.57%, 41.09%, 45.05%, 54.84%, 98.96%, 97.22%, and 92.01%, respectively, and on average, each person had 1.61, 1.71, 2.14, 3.52, 20.30, 20.55, and 17.26 teeth, respectively, with dental calculus. The prevalence and mean number of teeth with dental calculus increased with age. In the 35- to 74- year-old group, the prevalence of dental calculus was higher in urban areas than in rural areas and the mean number of teeth with dental calculus was higher in males than in females. Otherwise, there were no significant differences in the prevalence or the mean number of teeth with dental calculus or gingival bleeding between urban and rural areas or between males and females. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of both gingival bleeding and dental calculus in all 7 age groups in Guangdong, indicating that poor oral hygiene and gingival inflammation are common in Guangdong Province.

Key words: Oral health care, Oral epidemiology, Oral health survey, Cross-sectional survey, Gingival bleeding, Dental calculus

CLC Number: 

  • R781.4

Table 1

Prevalence and mean number of teeth with gingival bleeding in the 12-, 13-, 14-, and 15-year-old populations in Guangdong Province"

年龄 城乡/
性别
受检
人数
牙龈出血 Z P1 χ2 P2
检出人数 检出率(%) 检出牙数 x?±s
12岁 960 428 44.58 1 941 2.02 ± 3.25 0.880 0.379 0.542 0.462
960 412 42.92 1 806 1.88 ± 3.18
960 424 44.17 1 933 2.01 ± 3.32 0.588 0.556 0.135 0.713
960 416 43.33 1 814 1.89 ± 3.11
合计 1 920 840 43.75 3 747 1.95 ± 3.22
13岁 960 416 43.33 2 032 2.12 ± 3.50 0.543 0.587 0.258 0.612
960 405 42.19 1 945 2.03 ± 3.35
960 420 43.75 2 150 2.24 ± 3.62 1.541 0.123 0.768 0.381
960 401 41.77 1 827 1.90 ± 3.21
合计 1 920 821 42.76 3 977 2.07 ± 3.43
14岁 960 462 48.13 2 492 2.60 ± 4.19 -0.721 0.471 0.675 0.411
960 480 50.00 2 486 2.59 ± 3.96
960 460 47.92 2 441 2.54 ± 4.09 -1.002 0.316 1.009 0.315
960 482 50.21 2 537 2.64 ± 4.06
合计 1 920 942 49.06 4 978 2.59 ± 4.07
15岁 960 383 39.90 2 354 2.45 ± 4.27 0.506 0.613 0.218 0.640
960 373 38.85 2 233 2.33 ± 4.12
960 392 40.83 2 391 2.49 ± 4.24 1.290 0.197 1.711 0.191
960 364 37.92 2 196 2.29 ± 4.15
合计 1 920 756 39.38 4 587 2.39 ± 4.19

Table 2

Prevalence and mean number of teeth with gingival bleeding in the 35-44-, 55-64-, and 65-74-year-old populations in Guangdong Province"

年龄 城乡/性别 受检人数 牙龈出血 Z P1 χ2 P2
检出人数 检出率(%) 检出牙数 x?±s
35~44岁 144 124 86.11 1 368 9.50 ± 9.20 0.386 0.700 3.380 0.066
144 112 77.78 1 403 9.74 ± 10.17
144 115 79.86 1 416 9.83 ± 10.13 0.020 0.984 0.845 0.358
144 121 84.03 1 355 9.41 ± 9.24
合计 288 236 81.94 2 771 9.62 ± 9.68
55~64岁 144 127 88.19 1 343 9.33 ± 8.53 -1.958 0.050 2.706 0.100
144 135 93.75 1 642 11.40 ± 9.49
144 129 89.58 1 421 9.87 ± 9.56 -1.685 0.092 0.676 0.411
144 133 92.36 1 564 10.86 ± 8.55
合计 288 262 90.97 2 985 10.36 ± 9.07
65~74岁 144 118 81.94 1 384 9.61 ± 9.98 -0.908 0.364 0.931 0.334
144 124 86.11 1 489 10.34 ± 9.38
144 120 83.33 1 450 10.07 ± 10.26 -0.510 0.610 0.104 0.748
144 122 84.72 1 423 9.88 ± 9.08
合计 288 242 84.03 2 873 9.98 ± 9.67

Table 3

Prevalence and mean number of teeth with dental calculus in the 12-, 13-, 14-, and 15-year-old populations in Guangdong Province"

年龄 城乡/性别 受检人数 牙石 Z P1 χ2 P2
检出人数 检出率(%) 检出牙数 x ± s
12岁 960 384 40.00 1 520 1.58 ± 2.67 -0.435 0.663 0.261 0.609
960 395 41.15 1 579 1.64 ± 2.82
960 398 41.46 1 601 1.67 ± 2.88 0.766 0.444 0.624 0.430
960 381 39.69 1 498 1.56 ± 2.59
合计 1 920 779 40.57 3 099 1.61 ± 2.74
13岁 960 386 40.21 1 590 1.66 ± 2.93 -1.036 0.300 0.622 0.430
960 403 41.98 1 693 1.76 ± 2.84
960 391 40.73 1 705 1.78 ± 3.00 0.240 0.810 0.105 0.745
960 398 41.46 1 578 1.64 ± 2.77
合计 1 920 789 41.09 3 283 1.71 ± 2.89
14岁 960 441 45.94 2 142 2.23 ± 3.61 1.1676 0.243 0.608 0.436
960 424 44.17 1 973 2.06 ± 3.61
960 431 44.90 2 023 2.11 ± 3.52 -0.216 0.829 0.019 0.891
960 434 45.21 2 092 2.18 ± 3.70
合计 1 920 865 45.05 4 115 2.14 ± 3.61
15岁 960 498 51.88 3 207 3.34 ± 5.06 -2.661 0.008 6.833 0.009
960 555 57.81 3 544 3.69 ± 4.95
960 542 56.46 3 590 3.74 ± 5.07 2.173 0.030 2.021 0.155
960 511 53.23 3 161 3.29 ± 4.94
合计 1 920 1 053 54.84 6 751 3.52 ± 5.01

Table 4

Prevalence and mean number of teeth with dental calculus in the 35-44-, 55-64-, and 65-74-year-old populations in Guangdong Province"

年龄 城乡/性别 受检人数 牙石 Z P1 χ2 P2
检出人数 检出率(%) 检出牙数 x?±s
35~44岁 144 143 99.31 2 795 19.41 ± 9.38 -1.502 0.133 0.337 0.562
144 142 98.61 3 051 21.19 ± 8.90
144 143 99.31 3 274 22.74 ± 8.50 4.761 < 0.001 0.337 0.562
144 142 98.61 2 572 17.86 ± 9.20
合计 288 285 98.96 5 846 20.30 ± 9.17
55~64岁 144 141 97.92 2 916 20.25 ± 8.75 -0.794 0.427 0.514 0.473
144 139 96.53 3 002 20.85 ± 9.13
144 138 95.83 2 981 20.70 ± 9.39 0.710 0.478 2.057 0.152
144 142 98.61 2 937 20.40 ± 8.49
合计 288 280 97.22 5 918 20.55 ± 8.93
65~74岁 144 137 95.14 2 611 18.13 ± 9.46 1.407 0.159 3.827 0.050
144 128 88.89 2 359 16.38 ± 10.12
144 131 90.97 2 728 18.94 ± 9.77 3.077 0.002 0.425 0.514
144 134 93.06 2 242 15.57 ± 9.60
合计 288 265 92.01 4 970 17.26 ± 9.81
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