Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (9): 606-612.doi: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2018.09.012

• Review Articles • Previous Articles    

Research status of the relationship between periodontitis and systemic disease

Miaoying CHENG,Dan LIANG,Zhiqun TANG,Hongkun WU()   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Dept. of Geriatric Dentistry,West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
  • Received:2018-03-08 Revised:2018-03-31 Online:2018-09-20 Published:2018-09-30


Periodontitis is a common infectious disease that is harmful to human oral health and is the main cause of tooth loss. Periodontal inflammation can damage the integrity of the epithelium, causing periodontal pathogens to spread to the systemic circulation, and the periodontal pocket contains a large number of inflammatory mediators, especially those related to chronic inflammation, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins and prostaglandins, which will enter the blood circulation system from periodontal pocket and cause systemic inflammatory response. Periodontitis is closely related to the occurrence and development of systemic diseases, including cardiovascular, endocrine, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. Inflammatory responses and inflammatory factors may be the mechanism of the association between periodontitis and multiple systemic diseases. This article reviews the current research on the relationship between periodontitis and systemic disease.

Key words: Periodontitis, Systemic disease, Inflammatory factors, Cardiovascular disease, Atherosclerosis, Type 2 diabetes, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Inflammation

CLC Number: 

  • R781.4
[1] Wolf DL, Lamster IB . Contemporary concepts in the diagnosis of periodontal disease[J]. Dent Clin North Am, 2011,55(1):47-61.
doi: 10.1016/j.cden.2010.08.009 pmid: 21094718
[2] Kumar PS . From focal sepsis to periodontal medicine: a century of exploring the role of the oral microbiome in systemic disease[J]. J Physiol, 2017,595(2):465-476.
doi: 10.1113/tjp.2017.595.issue-2
[3] Chapple IL, Bouchard P, Cagetti MG , et al. Interaction of lifestyle, behaviour or systemic diseases with dental caries and periodontal diseases: consensus report of group 2 of the joint EFP/ORCA workshop on the boundaries between caries and periodontal diseases[J]. J Clin Periodontol, 2017,44(18, SI):S39-S51.
doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12685
[4] Grau AJ, Becher H, Ziegler CM , et al. Periodontal disease as a risk factor for ischemic stroke[J]. Stroke, 2004,35(2):496-501.
doi: 10.1161/01.STR.0000110789.20526.9D pmid: 14707235
[5] Xu S, Song M, Xiong Y , et al. The association between periodontaldisease and the risk of myocardialinfarction: a pooled analysis of observational studies[J]. BMC Cardiovasc Disord, 2017,17(1):2-11.
doi: 10.1186/s12872-016-0442-9
[6] Calapkorur MU, Alkan BA, Tasdemir Z , et al. Association of peripheral arterial disease with periodontal disease: analysis of inflammatory cytokines and an acute phase protein in gingival crevicular fluid and serum[J]. J Periodontal Res, 2017,52(3):532-539.
doi: 10.1111/jre.2017.52.issue-3
[7] Aoyama N, Suzuki JI, Kobayashi N , et al. Periodontitis deteriorates peripheral arterial disease in Japanese population via enhanced systemic inflammation[J]. Heart Vessels, 2017,32(11):1314-1319.
doi: 10.1007/s00380-017-1003-6
[8] Mahalakshmi K, Krishnan P, Arumugam SB . “Association of periodontopathic anaerobic bacterial co-occurrence toatherosclerosis” -a cross-sectional study[J]. Anaerobe, 2017,44:66-72.
doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.02.003
[9] Ebersole JL, Kryscio RJ, Campbell C , et al. Salivary and serum adiponectin and C-reactiveprotein levels in acute myocardial infarction related to body mass index and oral health[J]. J Periodontal Res, 2017,52(3):419-427.
doi: 10.1111/jre.2017.52.issue-3
[10] Zhou Q, Xia W, Ren J . Effect of intensive periodontal therapy on blood pressure and endothelial microparticles in prehypertensive patients with periodontitis: a randomized controlled trial[J]. J Periodontol, 2017,88(8):711-722.
doi: 10.1902/jop.2017.160447
[11] Widziolek M, Prajsnar TK, Tazzyman S , et al. Zebrafish as a new model to study effects of periodontal parhogens on cardiovascular disease[J]. SciRep, 2016,6:36023. DOI: 10.1038/srep36023.
doi: 10.1038/srep36023 pmid: 5078774
[12] Kose O, Arabaci T, Gedikli S , et al. Biochemical and histopathologic analysis of the effects of periodontitis on left ventricular heart tissues of rats[J]. J Periodont Res, 2017,52(2):176-185.
doi: 10.1111/jre.2017.52.issue-2
[13] Tonetti MS . Van dyke TE, working group 1 of the joint EFP/AAP workshop. Periodontitis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease:consensus report of the joint EFP/AAP workshop on periodontitis and systemic diseases[J]. J Periodontal, 2013,84(4):S24-S29.
doi: 10.1902/jop.2013.1340019
[14] Mesia R, Gholami F, Huang H , et al. Systemic inflammatory responses in patient with 2 diabetes with chronic periodontitis[J]. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, 2016,4(1):e000260.
doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2016-000260 pmid: 20
[15] Okuda M, Taguchi Y, Takahashi S , et al. Effects of high glucose for hard tissue formation on typeⅡ diabetes model rat bone marrow cells in vitro[J]. Hard Tissue Biol, 2015,24(1):77-83.
doi: 10.2485/jhtb.24.77
[16] Yang X, Zhang J, Ni J , et al. Toll-Like receptor 4 mediated hyper-responsiveness of gingival epithelial cells to LPS in high glucose environment[J]. J Periodontol, 2014,85(11):1620-1628.
doi: 10.1902/jop.2014.140087
[17] Lalla E, Papapanou PN . Diabetes mellitus and periodontitis: a tale of two common interrelated diseases[J]. Nat Rev Endocrinol, 2011,7(12):738-748.
doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2011.106 pmid: 21709707
[18] Taylor JJ, Preshaw PM, Lalla E . A review of the evidence for pathogenic mechanisms that may link periodontitis and diabetes[J]. J Clin Periodontol, 2013,40(Suppl 14):S113-S134.
doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12059 pmid: 23627323
[19] Paju S, Scannapieco FA . Oral biofilms, periodontitis, and pulmonary infections[J]. Oral Dis, 2007,13(6):508-512.
doi: 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2007.01410b.x pmid: 17944665
[20] Terpenning M, Bretz W, Lopatin D , et al. Bacterial colonization of saliva and plaque in the elderly[J]. Clin Infect Dis, 1993,16(4):314-316.
doi: 10.1093/clinids/16.Supplement_4.S314 pmid: 8324138
[21] Bassim CW, Gibson G, Ward T , et al. Modification of the risk of mortality from pneumonia with oral hygiene care[J]. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2008,56(9):1601-1607.
doi: 10.1111/jgs.2008.56.issue-9
[22] Hayes C, Sparrow D, Cohen M , et al. The association between alveolar bone loss and pulmonary function: the VA dental longitudinal study[J]. Ann Periodontal, 1998,3(1):257-261.
doi: 10.1902/annals.1998.3.1.257
[23] Scannapieco F, Genco RJ . Association of periodontal infections with atherosclerotic and pulmonary diseases[J]. J Periodontal Res, 1999,34(7):340-345.
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.1999.tb02263.x pmid: 10685358
[24] 林梅, 张冬雪, 王左敏 . 牙周炎对慢性阻塞性肺疾病大鼠肺损伤的作用研究[J]. 实用口腔医学, 2012,28(5):545-549.
[25] Yu H, Lin M, Wang X , et al. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphism is associated with increased susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Han Chinese patients with chronic periodontitis[J]. J Oral Sci, 2016,58(4):555-560.
doi: 10.2334/josnusd.16-0187
[26] Macredmond RE, Greene CM, Dorscheid DR , et al. Epithelial expression of TLR4 is modulated in COPD and by steroids, salmeterol and cigarette smoke[J]. Respir Res, 2007,8(1):84.
doi: 10.1186/1465-9921-8-84
[27] Pace E, Giarratano A, Ferraro M , et al. TLR4 upregulation underpins airway neutrophilia in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory failure[J]. Hum Immunol, 2011,72(1):54-62.
doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2010.09.009
[28] Ramesh A, Varghese SS, Jayakumar ND . Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and periodontitis-unwinding their linking mechanisms[J]. J Oral Biosci, 2016,58(1):23-26.
doi: 10.1016/j.job.2015.09.001
[29] Gj L , Herzberg MC, working group 4 of the joint EFP/AAP workshop. Periodontitis and systemic diseases: a record of discussions of working group 4 of the Joint EFP/AAP Workshop on periodontitis and systemic diseases[J]. J Clin Periodontol, 2013,40(14):20-23.
doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12091
[30] Marotte H, Farge P, Gaudin P , et al. The association between periodontal disease and joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis extends the Link between the HLA-DR shared epitope and severity of bone destruction[J]. Ann Rheum Dis, 2006,65(7):905-909.
[31] Song GG, Bae SC, Kim JH , et al. Interleukin-4, interleukin-4 receptor, and interleukin-18 polymorphisms and rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis[J]. Immunol Invest, 2013,42(6):455-469.
doi: 10.3109/08820139.2013.804084
[32] Mikuls TR, Payne JB, Yu F , et al. Periodontitis and porphyromonas gingivalis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis[J]. Arthritis Rheumatol, 2014,66(5):1090-1100.
doi: 10.1002/art.v66.5
[33] Lundberg K, Wegner N, Yucel-Lindberg T , et al. Periodontitis in RA-the citrullinated enolase connection[J]. Nat Rev Rheumatol, 2010,6(12):727-730.
doi: 10.1038/nrrheum.2010.139 pmid: 20820197
[34] Gilliam BE, Reed MR, Chauhan AK , et al. Evidence of fibrinogen as a target of citrullinatio in IgM rheumatoid factor-positive polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis[J]. Pediatr Rheumatol Online J, 2011,9(1):8.
doi: 10.1186/1546-0096-9-8
[35] Kinloch AJ, Alzabin S, Brintnell W , et al. Immunization with porphyromonas gingivalis enolase induces autoimmunity to mammalian alpha-enolase and arthritis in Dr4-IE-transgenic mice[J]. Arthritis Rheum, 2011,63(12):3818-3823.
doi: 10.1002/art.30639
[36] Hendler A, Mulli TK, Hughes FJ , et al. Involvement of autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis[J]. J Dent Res, 2010,89(12):1389-1394.
doi: 10.1177/0022034510381903 pmid: 20940360
[37] Calderaro DC, Ferreira GA, De Mendonça SM , et al. Is there an association between systemic lupus erythematosus and periodontal disease?[J]. Rev Bras Reumatol Engl Ed, 2016,56(3):280-284.
doi: 10.1016/j.rbr.2015.03.011
[38] Corrêa JD, Calderaro DC, Ferreira GA , et al. Subgingival microbiota dysbiosis in systemic lupus erythematosus: association with periodontal status[J]. Microbiome, 2017,5(34):2-13.
doi: 10.1186/s40168-016-0220-z pmid: 5240445
[39] Fabbri C, Fuller R, Bonfa E , et al. Periodontitis treatment improves systemic lupus erythematosus response to immunosuppressive therapy[J]. Clin Rheumatol, 2014,33(4):505-509.
doi: 10.1007/s10067-013-2473-2
[40] Marques CP, Maor Y, De Andrade MS , et al. Possible evidence of systemic lupus erythematosus and periodontal disease association mediated by Toll-like receptors 2 and 4[J]. Clin Exp Immunol, 2015,183(2):187-192.
[41] Fernandes E, Savioli C, Siqueira J , et al. Oral health and the masticatory system in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus[J]. Lupus, 2007,16(9):713-719.
doi: 10.1177/0961203307081124 pmid: 17728364
[42] Calderaro DC, Ferreira GA, Corrêa JD , et al. Is chronic periodontitis premature in systemic lupus erythematosus patients?[J]. Clin Rheumatol, 2017,36(3):713-718.
doi: 10.1007/s10067-016-3385-8 pmid: 27557901
[43] Poole S, Singhrao SK, Kesavalu L , et al. Determining the presence of periodontopathic virulence factors in short-term postmortem Alzheimer’s disease brain tissue[J]. J Alzheimers Dis, 2013,36(4):665-677.
doi: 10.3233/JAD-121918
[44] Kaye EK, Valencia A, Baba N , et al. Tooth loss and periodontaldisease predict poor cognitive function in oldermen[J]. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2010,58(4):713-718.
doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.02788.x pmid: 20398152
[45] Kamer AR, Craig RG, Dasanayake AP , et al. Inflammation and alzheimer’s disease: possible role of periodontal diseases[J]. Alzheimers & Dementia, 2008,4(4):242-250.
doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2007.08.004 pmid: 18631974
[46] Cerajewska TL, Davies M, West NX . Periodontitis: a potential risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease[J]. Br Dent J, 2015,218(1):29-34.
doi: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2014.1137 pmid: 25571822
[47] Takayama F, Hayashi Y, Wu Z1 ,et al. Diurnal dynamic behavior ofmicroglia in response to infected bacteria through the UDP-P2Y6 receptor system[J]. Sci Rep, 2016,6:30006, doi: 10.1038/srep30006.
doi: 10.1038/srep30006
[48] Gholizadeh P, Eslami H, Yousefi MA , et al. Role of oral microbiome on oral cancers, a review[J]. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 2016,84:552-558.
doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.09.082 pmid: 27693964
[49] Momen-Heravi F, Babic A, Tworoger SS , et al. Periodontal disease, tooth loss and colorectal cancer risk: results from the nurses’ health study[J]. Int J Cancer, 2017,140(3):646-652.
doi: 10.1002/ijc.v140.3
[50] Takeuchi H, Hirano T, Whitmore SE , et al. The serine phosphatase SerB of porphyromonas gingivalis suppresses IL-8 production by dephosphorylation of NF-κB RelA/p65[J]. PLoS Pathog, 2013,9(4):e1003326.
doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003326
[51] Mao S, Park Y, Hasegawa Y , et al. Intrinsic apoptotic pathways of gingival epithelial cells modulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis[J]. Cell Microbiol, 2007,9(8):1997-2007.
doi: 10.1111/j.1462-5822.2007.00931.x pmid: 2886729
[52] Yilmaz O, Jungas T, verbeke P , et al. Activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway contributes to survival of primary epithelial cells infected with the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis[J]. Immun, 2004,72(7):3743-3751.
[53] Yilmaz O, Yao L, Maeda K , et al. ATP scavenging by the intracellular pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibits P2X7-mediated host-cell apoptosis[J]. Cell Microbiol, 2008,10(4):863-875.
doi: 10.1111/j.1462-5822.2007.01089.x
[54] Binder GA, Fischman S, Revach B , et al. Periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum promote tumor progression in an oral-specific chemical carcinogenesis model[J]. Oncotarget, 2015,6(26):22613-22623.
[55] Raimondi S, Maisonneuve P, Lowenfels AB . Epidemiology of pancreatic cancer: an overview[J]. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2009,6(12):699-708.
doi: 10.1016/S0361-090X(03)00002-3 pmid: 12670518
[56] Michaud DS, Izard J, Wilhelm-Benartzi CS , et al. Plasma antibodies tooral bacteria and risk of pancreatic cancer in a large european prospective cohort study[J]. Gut, 2013,62(12):1764-1770.
doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2012-303006
[57] Chang JS, Tsai CR, Chen LT , et al. Investigating the association between periodontal disease and risk of pancreatic cancer[J]. Pancreas, 2016,45(1):134-141.
doi: 10.1097/MPA.0000000000000419 pmid: 26474422
[58] Hajishengallis G . Immunomicrobial pathogenesis of periodontitis: keystones, pathobionts, and host response[J]. Trends Immunol, 2014,35(1):3-11.
doi: 10.1016/
[59] Hu YW, Yu ZL, Xue NN , et al. Expression and protective roleof two novel NACHT-containing proteins in pathogen infection[J]. Dev Comp Immunol, 2014,46(2):323-332.
doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2014.05.007 pmid: 24858030
[60] Verma D, Särndahl E, Andersson H , et al. The Q705k polymorphism in NLRP3 is a gain-of-function alteration leading to excessive interleukin-1 beta and IL-18 production[J]. PLoS One, 2012,7(4):e34977.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034977
[61] Belibasakis GN, Johansson A . Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans targets NLRP3 and NLRP6 inflammasome expression in human mononuclear leukocytes[J]. Cytokine, 2012,59(1):124-130.
doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2012.03.016
[62] Miskiewicz A, Szparecki G, Durlik M , et al. The Q705K and F359L Single-Nucleotide polymorphisms of NOD-Like receptor signaling pathway: association with chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, and periodontitis[J]. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz), 2015,63(6):485-494.
doi: 10.1007/s00005-015-0355-9
[63] Bertrand KA, Shingala J, Evens A , et al. Periodontal disease and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study[J]. Int J Cancer, 2017,140(5):1020-1026.
doi: 10.1002/ijc.30518 pmid: 27861844
[64] Yilmaz O, Yao L, Maeda K , et al. ATP scavenging by the intracellular pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibits P2X7-mediated host-cell apoptosis[J]. Cell Microbiol, 2008,10(4):863-875.
doi: 10.1111/j.1462-5822.2007.01089.x
[65] Mccoy AN, Araújo-Pérez F, Azcárate-Peril A , et al. Fusobacterium is associated with colorectal adenomas[J]. PLoS One, 2013,8(1):e53653.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053653
[66] Kostic AD, Gevers D, Pedamallu CS , et al. Genomic analysis identifes association of Fusobacterium with colorectal carcinoma[J]. Genome Res, 2012,22(2):292-298.
doi: 10.1101/gr.126573.111
[67] Lee JH, Kweon HH, Choi JK , et al. Association between periodontal disease and prostatecancer: results of a 12-year longitudinal cohort study in South Korea[J]. J Cancer, 2017,8(15):2959-2965.
doi: 10.7150/jca.20532
[1] TANG Can,LIU Shiyu,CHENG Lei. Factors influencing the structure of the oral microbiome [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2020, 28(6): 390-393.
[2] WU Hongyu,MA Xiaoxin,LU Haixia,FENG Xiping,GU Qin,YE Wei,XIE Yingxin,XIE Danshu,WANG Wenji. Investigation of dental caries and periodontal conditions in maintenance hemodialysis patients [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2020, 28(5): 313-317.
[3] ZHANG Limu,LIN Xiaoping. Research progress on the mechanism of C-reactive protein mediated periodontitis and systemic diseases [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2020, 28(3): 184-188.
[4] ZHOU Wen,PENG Xian,CHENG Lei. Research progress on factors affecting bacterial adhesion on the oral implant surface [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2020, 28(2): 102-106.
[5] LI Jiatong,ZHOU Xuedong,XU Xin,WANG Yan. Research progress of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of oral infectious diseases [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2019, 27(9): 598-601.
[6] Gang WANG,Peng SUN,Juan LI,Shiguang HUANG. Expression of the receptor of advanced glycation end products in gingival tissue endothelial cells from type 2 diabetic rats with chronic periodontitis [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2019, 27(7): 428-434.
[7] Shuyu CAI,Xiaoyue LIN,Jin LEI,Song GE. Effects of Porphyromonas gingivalis infection with different fimA genotypes on the secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α by human umbilical vein endothelial cells [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2019, 27(6): 364-369.
[8] DAI Qian,YU Yuanling,HUANG Shiguang. Macrophage IL-33 expression in macrophages of human chronic periapical periodontitis and apical cyst [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2019, 27(5): 300-303.
[9] XU Xiongcheng,ZHONG Quan,LUO Kai. Application of 3D printing technology in preparation of scaffolds for periodontal tissue regeneration [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2019, 27(3): 189-193.
[10] ZHU Yanxia,Gegen tana. Research progress of IL-33/ST2 signaling pathway in bone metabolism [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2019, 27(3): 202-204.
[11] WANG Ye,LIN Xiaoping. Research progress on the common risk factors and related mechanisms of periodontitis and osteoporosis [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2019, 27(12): 794-798.
[12] WANG Min, GE Song. Research progress on the T cell receptor CDR3 spectral sequence of periodontitis [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2019, 27(12): 799-803.
[13] WU Qian,WANG Jian,NIU Li,YANG Xue,TANG Xiaolin. The role of vitamin D and its analogues in the treatment of oral mucosal diseases and periodontal diseases [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2019, 27(12): 804-808.
[14] TAO Qian , HUANG Yun. Analysis of causes for non-stone parotid obstructions [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2019, 27(11): 689-694.
[15] MA Yao,JIANG Zhaowei,JIN Yunyi,MIAO Qian,ZHANG Chunxiang,ZHANG Linkun. Gene ontology analysis of the TNF signaling pathway in early orthodontic tooth movement of rats with periodontitis [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2019, 27(11): 695-702.
Full text



[1] Chao TANG,Jing SUN,Ju-feng CHEN. Influence of nursing intervention on the life quality of patients with tongue cancer after operation[J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2016, 24(3): 177 -179 .
[2] Hong-chang LAI,Jun-yu SHI. Maxillary sinus floor elevation[J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2017, 25(1): 8 -12 .
[3] WANG An-xun. Research progress on the invasion and metastasis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma[J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2016, 24(5): 261 -266 .
[4] Pin ZHOU, Yang-fei LI. MRI study of temporomandibular joint disc position in asymptomatic volunteers[J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2017, 25(4): 239 -244 .
[5] Xinxin XIA, Fang FANG, Lijuan CHENG. Shaping ability of Pathfile and WaveOne in simulated root canals[J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2017, 25(6): 365 -368 .
[6] Yuanhong LI, Xinyi FANG, Yu QIU, Lei CHENG. Experimental study on the effects of green tea on salivary flow rate and pH value[J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2017, 25(9): 560 -564 .
[7] Chengzhang LI. Masticatory muscles in occlusion[J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2017, 25(12): 755 -760 .
[8] . [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2018, 26(1): 1 .
[9] Zhirong WU, Shiguang Huang. Research progress on the etiology, clinical examination and treatment of peri-implantitis[J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2018, 26(6): 401 -405 .
[10] Xiaowu YAO, Shisheng CHEN, Zizheng LU, Minxiao LIN. Clinical report and literature review on the amyloidosis of salivary glands[J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2018, 26(8): 533 -536 .
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.