Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (1): 41-46.doi: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2020.01.007

• Prevention and Treatment Practice • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Comparison of the accuracy of two-dimensional and three-dimensional photography in the facial measurement of patients with unilateral cleft lip

CHEN Shengkai1,MAO Bochun1,CHEN Yilin1,ZHOU Jiaqi1,MAO Jingning1,SHI Bing2,LI Jingtao2()   

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
    2.State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of Cleft Lip and Palate Surgery, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.
  • Received:2019-05-18 Revised:2019-07-12 Online:2020-01-20 Published:2020-01-17
  • Contact: Jingtao LI E-mail:lijingtao86@163.com

Abstract:

Objective To compare the measurement accuracy of two-dimensional (2D) photography and three-dimensional (3D) photography in the analysis of the asymmetric appearance of children with cleft lip and palate and the influence of the severity of asymmetric deformity on the accuracy of facial measurement to guide clinical measurement work.Methods Children with unilateral cleft lip were enrolled in this prospective study. Seven parameters--the deviation of the pronasale, subnasale, and labrale superius, as well as the cleft/noncleft ratio of the width of nostrils, length and height of lateral lips and height of columella-were measured with Vernier calipers as the gold standard. Traditional 2D photography and 3D stereophotogrammetry photos were taken and measured. The extent of cleft malformation is indicated by the ratio of the cleft side to the noncleft side. The error size is represented by the ratio difference between two-dimensional photography or stereophotogrammetry with the ratio of the gold standard.Results Thirteen patients were eventually recruited. The measurement results of the ratio of lateral lip height by 2D photography tended to be larger (P=0.019), and the measurement results of the ratio of columella height tended to be smaller (P=0.008). The measurement results of the deviation of the subnasale by stereophotogrammetry tended to be smaller (P=0.003). The pronasale deviation (P=0.022) with two-dimensional photography, the deviation of the labrale superius (P=0.025) and the ratio of lateral lip length (P=0.036) with stereophotogrammetry had a significant negative correlation with the extent of cleft malformation.Conclusion Both two-dimensional photography and stereophotogrammetry have errors and biases that underexaggerate or overexaggerate the extent of cleft malformation, and some errors may increase with the decrease in the extent of cleft malformation. When applying two-dimensional and three-dimensional photography to analyze cleft lip and palate deformities, these biases should be considered to evaluate the face more objectively.

Key words: cleft lip, unilateral, deformity, anthropometry, photogrammetry, stereophotogrammetry, facial morphology evaluation, dimensional measurement accuracy

CLC Number: 

  • R78

Figure 1

Mark points of frontal view and upturned view of face in 2D and 3D photos a &b: the 2-dimensional photos of patients in the frontal and lower angle; c & d: the 3-dimensional photos of patients in the frontal and lower angle; e & f: the scheme of facial landmarks in the frontal and lower angle. the mark indicates points on the cleft sideen: endocanthon; prn: pronasale; sbn: subnasale; sbal: subalare; ls: labrale superius; cph: christaphilitre; ch: chelion; sbcl: sub-columella nasi; prcl: pro-columella nasi"

Table 1

Facial measurement results of unilateral cleft lip by two-dimensional and stereophotogrammetry"

Measurement Abbreviation Landmarks/Severity of deformity Tool Ratio(x ± s) t P Correlation coefficient
Deviation of pronasale

prn en′-prn′/en-prn C 1.101 ± 0.075
P 1.157 ± 0.075 1.390 0.190 -0.678
S 1.120 ± 0.135 0.723 0.483 0.069
Deviation of subnasale

sbn en′-sbn/ en-sbn C 1.148 ± 0.077
P 1.167 ± 0.088 0.950 0.361 -0.172
S 1.121 ± 0.073 -1.707 0.114 -0.439
Deviation of labrale superius

ls en′-ls/ en-ls C 1.088 ± 0.062
P 1.070 ± 0.067 -1.353 0.201 -0.368
S 1.105 ± 0.061 -1.663 0.122 -0.615
Disparity of nostrils

sbn-sbal sbn-sbal′/sbn-sbal C 2.019 ± 0.523
P 1.950 ± 0.529 -0.904 0.384 -0.244
S 1.656 ± 0.441 -3.762 0.003 -0.513
Disparity of lateral lip height

sbal-cph sbal′-cph′/sbal-cph C 0.768 ± 0.167
P 0.878 ± 0.205 2.716 0.019 -0.068
S 0.822 ± 0.153 1.483 0.164 -0.491
Disparity of lateral lip length

ch-cph ch′-cph′/ch-cph C 0.870 ± 0.122
P 0.938 ± 0.214 0.712 0.490 -0.436
S 0.800 ± 0.123 -1.742 0.107 -0.584
Distortion of columella

prcl-sbcl prcl′-sbcl′/prcl-sbcl C 0.775 ± 0.173
P 0.583 ± 0.213 -3.157 0.008 -0.320
S 0.697 ± 0.277 -0.909 0.381 -0.463

Figure 2

Ratio difference between the two facial measurement methods and its correlation with the degree of deformity a: ratio difference (error bar refers to 95% confidence interval); b: relevance between ratio difference and the extent of cleft malformation; * refers parameters with statistical significance (P < 0.05). prn: deviation of pronasale; sbn: deviation of subnasale; ls: deviation of labrale superius; sbn-sbal: disparity of nostrils; sbal-cph: disparity of lateral lip height; ch-cph: disparity of lateral lip length; prcl-sbcl: distortion of columella. P: photogrammetry; S: stereophotogrammetry"

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