Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (2): 73-78.doi: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2020.02.002

• Basic Study • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Biocompatibility of bone marrow mesenchymal cells on polyetheretherketone and titanium surfaces in vitro

LIAN Keqian1,ZHANG Xin2(),ZHOU Jieyu1,LIAO Yanfen1,SI Shanshan3   

  1. 1. Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China
    2. Department of Implantology and Prosthodontics, Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 511400, China
    3. Department of General Emergency, Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510280, China
  • Received:2019-05-23 Revised:2019-11-01 Online:2020-02-20 Published:2020-02-25
  • Contact: Xin ZHANG E-mail:zhangx39@sina.cn

Abstract:

Objective To compare the in vitro biocompatibility of bone marrow mesenchymal cells on polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and titanium (Ti) surfaces. Methods PEEK and Ti foils with thicknesses of 1 mm and diameters of 10 mm were prepared. First, bone marrow mesenchymal cells were separated and purified by the whole bone marrow adherent culture method in vitro. Then, osteogenesis-induced bone marrow mesenchymal cells were cultivated on the surfaces of the PEEK and Ti foils. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the Alamar Blue test, an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) kit and Alizarin Red staining were used to analyze calcium nodules and compare the adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation ability of bone marrow mesenchymal cells on the surfaces of the PEEK and Ti foils. Results ① The morphology of the bone marrow mesenchymal cells cultured on the PEEK and Ti foils at 1 h, 4 h and 24 h showed no significant differences. ② In the 1 h, 3 h, 1 d and 3 d cultures of the bone marrow mesenchymal cells inoculated on the surfaces of the foils, the number of living cells in the PEEK group was greater than that in the Ti group (P < 0.05). ③ In the 7 d and 14 d osteogenesis-induced cultures of the inoculated bone marrow mesenchymal cells, the ALP activity of the PEEK group cells was significantly greater than that of the Ti group cells (P < 0.05). ④ Semiquantitative analysis after Alizarin Red staining showed that the mineralization degree of the bone marrow mesenchymal cells induced by osteoblasts was greater in the PEEK group than in the Ti group (P < 0.05). Conclusion PEEK has better in vitro biocompatibility than Ti and can better promote cell adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation compared with Ti, and so it is expected to become a new dental implant material.

Key words: bone marrow mesenchymal cells, polyetheretherketone, titanium, biocompatibility, dental implants, adhesion, proliferation, osteogenesis differentiation, alkaline phosphatase, mineralized nodule

CLC Number: 

  • R78

Figure 1

Morphology of the bone marrow mesenchymal cells observed by inverted microscopy a: fourth day of primary culture (50 ×); b: fourth day of the third generation (100 ×)"

Figure 2

Alizarin red staining mineralization nodules a: seventh day of osteoinductive cultivation (100 ×); b: fourteenth day of osteoinductive cultivation (100 ×)"

Figure 3

PEEK and Ti images a: PEEK foils with thicknesses of 1 mm and diameters of 10 mm; b: Ti foils with thicknesses of 1 mm and diameters of 10 mm"

Figure 4

SEM showing the morphology of bone marrow mesenchymal cells cultured on PEEK and Ti substrates after 1, 4 and 24 hours a: morphology of cells inoculated for 1 hour in the PEEK group (4 000 ×); b: morphology of cells inoculated for 4 hours in the PEEK group (2 000 ×); c: morphology of cells inoculated for 24 hours in the PEEK group (2 000 ×); d: morphology of cells inoculated for 1 hour in the Ti group (4 000 ×); e: morphology of cells inoculated for 4 hours in the Ti group (2 000 ×); f: morphology of cells inoculated for 24 hours in the Ti group (2 000 ×)"

Table 1

The adhesion and proliferation of the bone marrow mesenchymal cells on all substrates $\bar{x}$± s"

OD value
Group 1 h 3 h 1 d 3 d
Group of PEEK 0.321 ± 0.010 0.323 ± 0.008 0.233 ± 0.020 0.182 ± 0.007
Group of Ti 0.285 ± 0.008 0.296 ± 0.012 0.220 ± 0.007 0.127 ± 0.011
t 5.354 4.018 3.690 9.071
P 0.001 0.004 0.015 < 0.001
95% confidence interval of uPEEK-uTi (0.020,0.051) (0.001,0.041) (0.003,0.022) (0.040,0.069)

Table 2

ALP activity of the osteogenesis induced bone marrow mesenchymal cells cultured on all substrates for 7 and 14 days $\bar{x}$± s,gprot"

ALP
Group 7 d 14 d
Group of PEEK 10.849 ± 0.949 7.050 ± 1.001
Group of Ti 4.888 ± 0.784 4.938 ± 0.712
t 10.831 4.385
P <0.001 0.001
95% confidence interval of uPEEK-uTi (4.691,7.230) (1.062,3.061)

Table 3

The mineralization of the osteogenesis induced bone marrow mesenchymal cells cultured on all substrates for 7 and 14 days $\bar{x}$± s"

OD value
Group 7 d 14 d
Group of PEEK 0.552 ± 0.181 1.034 ± 0.233
Group of Ti 0.296 ± 0.055 0.583 ± 0.080
t 3.026 4.100
P 0.031 0.010
95% confidence interval of uPEEK-uTi (0.035,0.477) (0.167,0.735)
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