Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (3): 137-145.DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2020.03.001

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Clinical application and complications of short implants (≤6 mm)

SHI Bin(),YAN Qi,WU Xinyu   

  1. Department of Oral Implantology, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan university, Wuhan 430079, China
  • Received:2019-08-01 Revised:2019-11-05 Online:2020-03-20 Published:2020-03-20
  • Contact: Bin SHI

短种植体(≤ 6 mm)的临床应用与并发症


  1. 武汉大学口腔医院种植科, 湖北 武汉(430079)
  • 通讯作者: 施斌
  • 作者简介:施斌,武汉大学口腔医院教授、博士生导师,武汉大学口腔医院种植科主任。主要研究方向为生物力学、骨再生材料、种植体周围炎相关致病机制等。在国内外专业杂志上发表口腔种植学领域相关文章60余篇,其中SCI 20余篇。培养博士、硕士研究生60余名。担任《Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research》中文版副主编,《Clinical Oral Implants Research》中文版副主编,《临床口腔医学精粹》副主编,《口腔疾病防治》、《口腔医学研究》编委。
  • 基金资助:


Short implants can be used as an alternative in cases of insufficient vertical bone volume after dentition defect or absence of dentition to simplify or avoid bone augmentation procedures. Short implants (≤ 6 mm) are reported to have a mean survival rate of 96% after a period of 1-5 years in function and have been widely used in cases of dentition defects or absence of dentition. Compared with conventional implants (≥ 10 mm) combined with bone augmentation procedures, short implants have fewer surgery-related complications, less marginal bone loss, shortened treatment times and reduced costs, and are preferred by patients. Due to a lack of evidence, a high crown-implant ratio should not be an obstacle for the use of short implants. In addition, most of the current literature has not enough follow-up time, the long-term implant survival data of short implants remain unclear. To improve the clinical outcomes of short implants, attention should be paid to the implant site, bone quality, and occlusal force as well as to the presence of oral health maintenance, periodontal diseases and habits through a careful intraoral and radiographic examination. The choices of wider implant use and splint restoration are recommended, occlusal force should be paid attention during implant maintenance. Inappropriate stress on restorations should be avoided. Future studies should be focused on the long-term clinical outcomes of short implants.

Key words: implant prosthesis, insufficient bone mass, dentition defect, absence of dentition, short implant, crown-to-root ratio, occlusal force, survival rate, marginal bone loss, complication


短种植体可以用于牙列缺损或缺失后剩余骨高度不足的情况,以简化甚至避免骨增量手术。目前短种植体(≤ 6 mm)在牙列缺损和牙列缺失中均有了广泛的应用,作为骨增量手术的替代方法,文献报告短种植体1~5年的平均存留率为96%,且与骨增量手术后植入常规种植体(≥ 10 mm)相比,短种植体外科并发症少、边缘骨吸收少、节省了患者的时间和费用,是患者满意度较高的治疗方法,同时在无明确证据的情况下,冠根比不应成为短种植体临床应用的限制因素。目前的文献大部分观察时间有限,因此无明确的高质量证据能证明短种植体(≤ 6 mm)有很高的长期存留率。为了达到较好的临床效果,应仔细评估缺牙部位、骨质、咬合力、口腔卫生、牙周病和不良习惯等,选择直径较宽的短种植体,上部修复方式推荐使用联冠,种植体的维护中注意咬合变化,控制不适当的受力。未来的研究应关注短种植体的长期效果。

关键词: 种植修复, 骨量不足, 牙列缺损, 牙列缺失, 短种植体, 冠根比, 咬合力, 存留率, 边缘骨吸收, 并发症

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