Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (4): 226-233.doi: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.04.002

• Basic Study • Previous Articles     Next Articles

A novel biomimetic micro/nano hierarchical interface of titanium enhances adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal cells

WANG Min(),JIANG Nan,ZHU Songsong()   

  1. State Key Laboratory Oral Diseases, National Clinical Reasearch Center for oral Diseases, Department of oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
  • Received:2020-08-24 Revised:2020-10-19 Online:2021-04-20 Published:2021-02-26
  • Contact: Songsong ZHU E-mail:15882167039@163.com;zss_1977@163.com
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(81901026)

Abstract:

Objective To design a novel biomimetic micro/nano hierarchical interface on endosseous titanium implants and investigate its effect on the biological activity of bone marrow mesenchymal cells. Methods Electrochemical anodization and spark plasma sintering were used to modify smooth titanium (untreated Ti group) with a microporous trabecular bone-like architecture (micro-Ti group) and TiO2 nanotube architecture (nano-TiO2 group). Additionally, electrochemical anodization was employed to prepare TiO2 nanotubes on microporous trabecular bone-like architectures, which formed a novel biomimetic hierarchical interface (micro/nano-TiO2 group). Four groups of titanium samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle (CA). Bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMMCs) were seeded on four groups of titanium samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to observe cell morphology. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay. The expression of focal adhesion proteins (F-actin; vinculin; osteocalcin, OCN; osteopontin, OPN) were observed under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The mRNA expression levels of osteogenic factors (runt-related transcription factor 2, RUNX2; osteocalcin, OCN; osteopontin, OPN; collagen I, COL I) were assessed by qRT-PCR. Results The micro/nano- TiO2 group featured a hydrophilic surface (CA=9° ± 2.1°). The results of the MTT assay indicated that the relative cell proliferation rates for the nano- TiO2 and micro/nano-TiO2 samples were significantly increased compared with those for the untreated-Ti and micro-Ti samples (P<0.001) after 5-9 days. The ALP results indicated that the micro/nano-TiO2 sample gained the highest value at 14 days. After 72 h of incubation, the expression of osteocalcin (OCN) and osteopontin (OPN) on micro/nano-TiO2 was the strongest. After 24 h incubation, the expression of F-actin on micro/nano-TiO2 was the strongest. In comparison with untreated-Ti and micro-Ti samples,the mRNA expression levels of all the osteogenic factors (runt-related transcription factor 2, RUNX2; osteocalcin, OCN; osteopontin, OPN; Collagen I, COL I) were markedly increased on the nano-TiO2 and micro/nano-TiO2 samples, the mRNA expression levels of collagen I (COL I) were significantly different between the nano-TiO2 and micro/nano-TiO2 samples versus the untreated-Ti and micro-Ti samples (P<0.001). Conclusion The novel biomimetic micro/nano hierarchical interface has a positive effect on cell attachment, viability and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal cells.

Key words: micro/nano structure, TiO2 nano-tubes, bionic, surface treatment, implants, bone marrow mesenchymal cells, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, spark plasma sintering, electrochemical anodization

CLC Number: 

  • R78

Table 1

Specific prime sequences of PCR"

Gene Forward primer 5′-3′ Reverse primer 5′-3′
COL I GCTGGCAAGAATGGCGAC AGCCACGATGACCCTTTATG
OCN GGAGGGCAGTAAGGTGGTGA ACGGTGGTGCCATAGATGC
OPN AACAGTATCCCGATGCCACA TGGCTGGTCTTCCCGTTG
RUNX2 CAGGCGTATTTCAGATGATGACA TAAGTGAAGGTGGCTGGATAGTG
Actin CCCATCTATGAGGGTTACGC TTTAATGTCACGCACGATTTC

Figure 1

SEM images of the surface of titanium samples a: untreated-Ti (× 1 000); b: microporous trabecular bone-like architecture (×1 000). It resembled a trabecular bone; c: TiO2 nano-pores arranged uniformly (× 80 000); d: TiO2 nano-pores arranged uniformly (× 160 000); SEM: scanning electronmicroscopy"

Figure 2

AFM images of samples in the untreated-Ti group and nano-TiO2 group a: untreated-Ti group, which showed a relatively rough surface; b: nano-TiO2 group; nano-pores (diameter: 50-120 nm) were observed on its surface; AFM: atomic force microscopy"

Table 2

Surface parameters of samples in the untreated-Ti group and nano-TiO2 group"

Group Surface roughness
(nm)
Vertical range
(nm)
Surface difference
(%)
Untreated-Ti
Nano-TiO2
15.89 ± 2.5
46.30 ± 2.181)
156.53 ± 30.31
340 ± 33.561)
7.35 ± 2.18
13.78 ± 2.581)

Figure 3

The static contact angles on the samples in the four groups a: untreated-Ti group, 35° ± 2.3°; b: micro-Ti group, 18° ± 1.6°; c: nano-TiO2 group, 14° ± 1.6°; d: micro/nano-TiO2 group, 9° ± 2.1°"

Figure 4

SEM images of BMMCs 4 h after culture on the surfaces of samples in the four groups a: untreated-Ti group, most of the cells were fusiform, some of which can be seen with pseudopodia and antennas; b: micro-Ti group, the cells were flat and polygonal, with pseudopodia and antennas clearly visible; c: nano-TiO2 group, the cells were flat and polygonal, closely attached to the surface of the titanium samples; d: micro/nano-TiO2 group, cells were connected with each other and grew together flakily, with large numbers of pseudopodia and antennas; SEM: scanning electronmicroscopy"

Figure 5

The cell proliferation rate of BMMCs cultured on the samples in the four groups *: vs. untreated-Ti group, P<0.05; $: vs. micro-Ti group, P<0.05. The relative cell proliferation rates of samples in the four groups increased between days 1-9, and the relative cell proliferation rates of samples in the nano-TiO2 group and the micro/nano-TiO2 group significantly increased compared with those in the untreated-Ti group and the micro-Ti group(P<0.001) between days 5-9"

Figure 6

ALP activity of BMMCs cultured on the samples in the four groups *: vs. untreated-Ti group, P<0.05; $: vs. micro-Ti group, P<0.05; #: vs. nano-TiO2 group, P<0.05. The relative cell proliferation rates of samples in the four groups increased between days 7-14, and the samples in the micro/nano-TiO2 group gained the highest value on the 14th day"

Figure 7

Immunofluorescence staining images of BMMCs cultured on the samples in the four groups (× 400) a: the expression of F-actin and vinculin after 24 h incubation. The expression of F-actin in the micro/nano-TiO2 group was the strongest. b: the expression of OCN and OPN after 72 h incubation. The expression of OCN and OPN in the micro/nano-TiO2 group was the strongest. Blue: cell nucleus; green: either F-actin or OPN; red: either vinculinor or OCN; OCN: osteocalcin; OPN: osteopontin"

Figure 8

mRNA expression levels of various osteogenic transcription factors in the four groups a: RUNX2; b: OCN; c: OPN; d: COL Ⅰ (collagen I). *P<0.05 vs. untreated-Ti group, #: P<0.05 vs. micro-Ti group, $: P<0.05 vs. Nano-TiO2 group. Compared with the untreated-Ti group and the micro-Ti group, the mRNA expression levels of all the osteogenic factors in the nano-TiO2 and micro/nano-TiO2 groups markedly increased; compared with the untreated-Ti group and micro-Ti group, the mRNA expression levels of COL I in the nano-TiO2 and micro/nano-TiO2 groups significantly increased (P < 0.001)"

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