Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (6): 377-382.doi: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.06.003

• Basic Study • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Computational fluid dynamics analysis of the flow of ultrasonic irrigations in root canal

XING Xiaoyu(),LI Yanping,ZHANG Lin,HE Lina,LIU Huimei,NIU Yumei()   

  1. Department of Endodontics, The First Affiliated Stomatological Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001, China
  • Received:2021-01-05 Revised:2021-01-31 Online:2021-06-20 Published:2021-04-12
  • Contact: Yumei NIU E-mail:1771020419@qq.com;yumeiniu@163.com
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the grants from National Natural Science Foundation of China(81970924)

Abstract:

Objective To study the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) characteristics of ultrasonic root canal irrigation when the file was placed at a certain depth in the root canal, to provide a reference for clinical application. Methods First, scanning laser vibrometry (SLV) was utilized to analyze the characteristics of vibrational ultrasonic files under specific power. Then ICEM CFD 18.0 software was used to establish the root canal ultrasonic irrigation model. The insertion position of the ultrasonic working tip was set 1 mm away from the physiological apical foramen, and cloud images of the results were obtained by FLUENT 18.0 software. Volume fraction, flow velocity and pressure in the root canal were evaluated after setting the computing conditions. Results The vibration of the ultrasonic working tip was mainly transverse vibration with slight longitudinal vibration. The amplitude of transverse vibration of each part of the working tip was different. Maximum values were observed at the apical end area of the file, and the closer to the base of the file, the smaller the amplitude. The area where the cavitation volume fraction of the rinsing fluid was greater than 0 was concentrated around the working point. The flow rate of the irrigating fluid was up to 2 m/s, within the area 0.2 mm in front of the working tip, the velocity of the irrigating fluid was greater than 0.1 m/s, while within the area 0.8 mm from the root tip, the velocity of the irrigating fluid was small or even zero. The apical pressure value was non-positive when the tip of the file was 1 mm away from the apical foramen in this model. Conclusion Based on the experimental results, it appears that when the ultrasonic working tip was placed 1 mm short of the working length, the ultrasonic irrigating flow did not overflow the root apical foramen and the irrigation process was relatively safe; the irrigation fluid had a strong irrigation effect within approximately 0.2 mm in front of the working tip.

Key words: root canal therapy, ultrasonic root canal irrigation, root canal irrigant, cavitation, computational fluid dynamics, scanning laser vibrometry, vibration, apical pressure

CLC Number: 

  • R78

Figure 1

Schematic diagram of geometric model of root canal and ultrasonic file h: distance between the physiological apical foramen and the anatomical apical foramen, h1: distance between the ultrasonic working tip and the physiological apical foramen, l1: the working length of the root canal; Φ: the diameter of the root canal"

Figure 2

Measurement results of vibration of ultrasonic working file by scanning laser vibrometry a: three-dimensional axis, the negative direction of the X-axis is the direction of the root canal, which corresponds to the direction of gravity; b: vibration frequency and amplitude of an ultrasonic file; c: schematic diagram of ultrasonic tip movement trajectory"

Figure 3

The vapor volume fraction on the X-Y axis of the irrigation fluid in the root canal when the ultrasonic tip was 1 mm away from the root tip The outermost periphery represents the root canal wall, the inner gray part represents the ultrasonic tip, and the gap between the two represents the root canal irrigation fluid. The color of the rinse fluid represents the value of the vapor"

Figure 4

The velocity on the X-Y axis of the irrigation fluid in the root canal when the ultrasonic tip is 1 mm away from the root tip a: cloud diagram, the outermost periphery represents the root canal wall, the inner gray part represents the ultrasonic tip, and the gap between the two represents the root canal irrigation fluid, the color of the rinse fluid represents the value of the speed value; b: distribution of irrigant velocity as a function of position on the X-Y plane, velocities higher than 0.1 m/s (horizontal red line) are considered to be clinically effective"

Figure 5

Apical pressure on the X-Y axis of the irrigation fluid in the root canal when the ultrasonic tip was 1 mm away from the root tip The outermost periphery represents the root canal wall, the inner gray part represents the ultrasonic tip, and the gap between the two represents the root canal irrigation fluid. The color of the rinse fluid represents the value of the apical pressure"

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