Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (7): 433-441.doi: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.07.001

• Expert Forum • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Vital pulp therapy of pulp inflammation of permanent teeth

WU Buling1,2(),LUO Yifei2,3,XU Wenan1,TONG Zhongchun4   

  1. 1. Department of Cariology and Endodontics, Shenzhen Stomatology Hospital (Pingshan), Southern Medical University, Shenzhen 518118, China
    2. College of Stomatology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China
    3. Department of Stomatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China
    4. Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055, China
  • Received:2020-09-05 Revised:2020-11-12 Online:2021-07-20 Published:2021-04-19
  • Contact: Buling WU E-mail:bulingwu@smu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(81870755);National Natural Science Foundation of China(81970930)

Abstract:

Vital pulp therapy aims to maintain healthy pulp tissue as much as possible to improve the long-term survival of teeth. It has limited indications and uncertain curative effects. The pathological changes in inflamed pulp are the histological basis for the determination of treatment strategies and the treatment outcome; however, pulp sensitivity testing cannot reflect the actual histological status of the pulp. With the development of basic and clinical research on vital pulp therapy, the innovation of modern diagnostic and therapeutic technology and capping material, vital pulp therapy can be used as a treatment of teeth on which it was previously thought pulpectomy was necessary. Based on the evidence-based literature, this paper analyzes and summarizes the pathological changes of pulpitis and clinical research on the treatment of pulpitis. Vital pulp therapy can be a treatment for mature teeth with carious exposure and symptoms of irreversible pulpitis if comprehensive applications, including laser Doppler flowmetry, tissue oxygen monitoring, magnetic resonance imaging and microscopy, are used to determine the degree of pulp retention and if infection control and the use of biocompatible capping material are emphasized. In the future, it will be necessary to improve the success rate of vital pulp therapy for the treatment of pulpitis through research on the mechanism of pulp repair and regeneration, the precise diagnosis of pulpitis, and the development of pulp capping materials.

Key words: pulpitis, permanent teeth, vital pulp therapy, direct pulp capping, pulpotomy, indication, prognosis, defease reaction, repair reaction, laser doppler flowmetry, tissue oxygen monitor, magnetic resonance imaging, pulp capping material

CLC Number: 

  • R78

Figure 1

Partial pulpotomy in the 16 tooth with carious exposure a: a radiograph showed that the deep caries lesion of tooth 16 was close to the pulp horn; b: after caries excavation, exposure of the pulp horn was identified; c: after anesthesia, rubber dam isolation and thorough caries excavation; d: pulp wound after removal of infected tissue and hemostasis with sodium hypochlorite; e: the wound was capped with iRoot BP, flowable resin was used as cavity liner and the cavity was restored with resin composite; f: a radiograph taken 3 months after treatment showed the cavity restored with resin composite and normal periapical conditions"

[1] Al-Hiyasat AS. Barrieshi-Nusair KM, Al-Omari MA. The radiographic outcomes of direct pulp-capping procedures performed by dental students:a retrospective study[J]. J Am Dent Assoc, 2006,137(12):1699-1705. doi: 10.14219/jada.archive.2006.0116.
pmid: 17138715
[2] Crespo-Gallardo I, Hay-Levytska O, Martín-González J, et al. Correction: criteria and treatment decisions in the management of deep caries lesions: is there endodontic overtreatment?[J]. J Clin Exp Dent, 2019,11(1):e103. doi: 10.4317/jced.532742.
pmid: 30697402
[3] Ricucci D, Loghin S, Siqueira JJ. Correlation between clinical and histologic pulp diagnoses[J]. J Endod, 2014,40(12):1932-1939. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2014.08.010.
doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2014.08.010 pmid: 25312886
[4] Ricucci D, Siqueira JJ, Li Y, et al. Vital pulp therapy: histopathology and histobacteriology-based guidelines to treat teeth with deep caries and pulp exposure[J]. J Dent, 2019,86:41-52. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2019.05.022.
pmid: 31121241
[5] Lin LM, Ricucci D, Saoud TM, et al. Vital pulp therapy of mature permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis from the perspective of pulp biology[J]. Aust Endod J, 2020,46(1):154-166. doi: 10.1111/aej.12392.
doi: 10.1111/aej.12392 pmid: 31865629
[6] Bjørndal L, Simon S, Tomson PL, et al. Management of deep caries and the exposed pulp[J]. Int Endod J, 2019,52(7):949-973. doi: 10.1111/iej.13128.
pmid: 30985944
[7] Galler KM. Clinical procedures for revitalization: current knowledge and considerations[J]. Int Endod J, 2016,49(10):926-936. doi: 10.1111/iej.12606.
doi: 10.1111/iej.12606 pmid: 26715631
[8] Farges JC, Alliot-Licht B, Renard E, et al. Dental pulp defence and repair mechanisms in dental caries[J]. Mediators Inflamm, 2015: 230251. doi: 10.1155/2015/230251.
[9] Giraud T, Jeanneau C, Rombouts C, et al. Pulp capping materials modulate the balance between inflammation and regeneration[J]. Dent Mater, 2019,35(1):24-35. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2018.09.008.
pmid: 30269862
[10] Luo H, Wang C, Liu M, et al. Inhibition of SOX9 promotes inflammatory and immune responses of dental pulp[J]. J Endod, 2018,44(5):792-799. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2018.02.004.
pmid: 29571909
[11] Yumoto H, Hirao K, Hosokawa Y, et al. The roles of odontoblasts in dental pulp innate immunity[J]. Jpn Dent Sci Rev, 2018,54(3):105-117. doi: 10.1016/j.jdsr.2018.03.001.
doi: 10.1016/j.jdsr.2018.03.001 pmid: 30128058
[12] Kawai T, Akira S. The role of pattern-recognition receptors in innate immunity: update on Toll-like receptors[J]. Nat Immunol, 2010,11(5):373-384. doi: 10.1038/ni.1863.
doi: 10.1038/ni.1863 pmid: 20404851
[13] Takahashi N, Nyvad B. Ecological hypojournal of dentin and root caries[J]. Br Dent J, 2016,221(7):409. doi: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2016.732.
doi: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2016.732 pmid: 27713451
[14] Nakashima M, Akamine A. The application of tissue engineering to regeneration of pulp and dentin in endodontics[J]. J Endod, 2005,31(10):711-718. doi: 10.1097/01.don.0000164138.49923.e5.
doi: 10.1097/01.don.0000164138.49923.e5 pmid: 16186748
[15] Da Rosa W, Piva E, Da Silva AF. Disclosing the physiology of pulp tissue for vital pulp therapy[J]. Int Endod J, 2018,51(8):829-846. doi: 10.1111/iej.12906.
doi: 10.1111/iej.12906 pmid: 29405371
[16] Li M, Sun X, Ma L, et al. SDF-1/CXCR4 axis induces human dental pulp stem cell migration through FAK/PI3K/Akt and GSK3β/β-catenin pathways[J]. Sci Rep, 2017,7:40161. doi: 10.1038/srep40161.]
pmid: 28067275
[17] Okamoto M, Takahashi Y, Komichi S, et al. Dentinogenic effects of extracted dentin matrix components digested with matrix metalloproteinases[J]. Sci Rep, 2018,8(1):10690. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-29112-3.
pmid: 30013085
[18] Goldberg M, Njeh A, Uzunoglu E. Is pulp inflammation a prerequisite for pulp healing and regeneration?[J]. Mediators Inflamm, 2015: 347649. doi: 10.1155/2015/347649.
[19] Sonoda S, Yamaza H, Ma L, et al. Interferon-gamma improves impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive functions of irreversible pulpitis-derived human dental pulp stem cells[J]. Sci Rep, 2016,6:19286. doi: 10.1038/srep19286.
pmid: 26775677
[20] Lee S, Zhang QZ, Karabucak B, et al. DPSCs from Inflamed Pulp Modulate Macrophage Function via the TNF-α/IDO Axis[J]. J Dent Res, 2016,95(11):1274-1281. doi: 10.1177/0022034516657817.
doi: 10.1177/0022034516657817 pmid: 27384335
[21] Ricucci D, Loghin S, Niu LN, et al. Changes in the radicular pulp-dentine complex in healthy intact teeth and in response to deep caries or restorations: A histological and histobacteriological study[J]. J Dent, 2018,73:76-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2018.04.007.
doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2018.04.007 pmid: 29660488
[22] Berbari R, Khairallah A, Kazan HF, et al. Measurement reliability of the remaining dentin thickness below deep carious lesions in primary molars[J]. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent, 2018,11(1):23-28. doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1478.
doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1478 pmid: 29805230
[23] Mainkar A, Kim SG. Diagnostic accuracy of 5 dental pulp tests: a systematic review and meta-analysis[J]. J Endod, 2018,44(5):694-702. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2018.01.021.
pmid: 29571914
[24] Niraj LK, Patthi B, Singla A, et al. MRI in dentistry- a future towards radiation free imaging - systematic review[J]. J Clin Diagn Res, 2016, 10(10): ZE14-ZE19. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/19435.8658.
pmid: 27891491
[25] Demirturk KH, Geha H, Gaalaas LR, et al. MRI for dental applications[J]. Dent Clin North Am, 2018,62(3):467-480. doi: 10.1016/j.cden.2018.03.006.
pmid: 29903562
[26] Rechenberg DK, Galicia JC, Peters OA. Biological markers for pulpal inflammation: a systematic review[J]. PLoS One, 2016,11(11):e0167289. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167289.
pmid: 27898727
[27] Zanini M, Meyer E, Simon S. Pulp inflammation diagnosis from clinical to inflammatory mediators: a systematic review[J]. J Endod, 2017,43(7):1033-1051. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2017.02.009.
doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2017.02.009 pmid: 28527838
[28] Hirsch V, Wolgin M, Mitronin AV, et al. Inflammatory cytokines in normal and irreversibly inflamed pulps: a systematic review[J]. Arch Oral Biol, 2017,82:38-46. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.05.008.
doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.05.008 pmid: 28600966
[29] Sugiuchi A, Sano Y, Furusawa M, et al. Human dental pulp cells Express cellular markers for inflammation and hard tissue formation in response to bacterial information[J]. J Endod, 2018,44(6):992-996. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2018.02.022.
pmid: 29680724
[30] Galicia JC, Henson BR, Parker JS, et al. Gene expression profile of pulpitis[J]. Genes Immun, 2016,17(4):239-243. doi: 10.1038/gene.2016.14.
doi: 10.1038/gene.2016.14 pmid: 27052691
[31] Zanini M, Hennequin M, Cousson PY. A review of criteria for the evaluation of pulpotomy outcomes in mature permanent teeth[J]. J Endod, 2016,42(8):1167-1174. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2016.05.008.
doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2016.05.008 pmid: 27339631
[32] Asgary S, Eghbal MJ, Ghoddusi J, et al. One-year results of vital pulp therapy in permanent molars with irreversible pulpitis: an ongoing multicenter, randomized, non-inferiority clinical trial[J]. Clin Oral Investig, 2013,17(2):431-439. doi: 10.1007/s00784-012-0712-6.
doi: 10.1007/s00784-012-0712-6 pmid: 22431145
[33] Asgary S, Eghbal MJ, Ghoddusi J. Two-year results of vital pulp therapy in permanent molars with irreversible pulpitis: an ongoing multicenter randomized clinical trial[J]. Clin Oral Investig, 2014,18(2):635-641. doi: 10.1007/s00784-013-1003-6.
doi: 10.1007/s00784-013-1003-6 pmid: 23712823
[34] Asgary S, Eghbal MJ, Fazlyab M, et al. Five-year results of vital pulp therapy in permanent molars with irreversible pulpitis: a non-inferiority multicenter randomized clinical trial[J]. Clin Oral Investig, 2015,19(2):335-341. doi: 10.1007/s00784-014-1244-z.
doi: 10.1007/s00784-014-1244-z pmid: 24771228
[35] Asgary S, Hassanizadeh R, Torabzadeh H, et al. Treatment outcomes of 4 vital pulp therapies in mature molars[J]. J Endod, 2018,44(4):529-535. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2017.12.010.
doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2017.12.010 pmid: 29397215
[36] Cushley S, Duncan HF, Lappin MJ, et al. Pulpotomy for mature carious teeth with symptoms of irreversible pulpitis: a systematic review[J]. J Dent, 2019,88:103158. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2019.06.005.
pmid: 31229496
[37] Na TH, Khazali MA. Partial pulpotomy in mature permanent teeth with clinical signs indicative of irreversible pulpitis: a randomized clinical trial[J]. J Endod, 2017,43(9):1417-1421. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2017.03.033.
doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2017.03.033 pmid: 28673494
[38] Elmsmari F, Ruiz XF, Miró Q, et al. Outcome of partial pulpotomy in cariously exposed posterior permanent teeth: a systematic review and meta-analysis[J]. J Endod, 2019, 45(11): 1296-1306.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2019.07.005.
doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2019.07.005 pmid: 31515048
[39] European Society of Endodontology (ESE) Developed by:, Duncan HF, Galler KM, et al. European society of endodontology position statement: management of deep caries and the exposed pulp[J]. Int Endod J, 2019,52(7):923-934. doi: 10.1111/iej.13080.
pmid: 30664240
[40] Linsuwanont P, Wimonsutthikul K, Pothimoke UA. Treatment outcomes of mineral trioxide aggregate pulpotomy in vital permanent teeth with carious pulp exposure: the retrospective study[J]. J Endod, 2017,43(2):225-230. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2016.10.027.
doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2016.10.027 pmid: 28041685
[41] Galani M, Tewari S, Sangwan P, et al. Comparative evaluation of postoperative pain and success rate after pulpotomy and root canal treatment in cariously exposed mature permanent molars: a randomized controlled trial[J]. J Endod, 2017,43(12):1953-1962. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2017.08.007.
pmid: 29061359
[42] Asgary S, Nosrat A, Homayounfar N. Periapical healing after direct pulp capping with calcium-enriched mixture cement: a case report[J]. Oper Dent, 2012,37(6):571-575. doi: 10.2341/11-417-S.
doi: 10.2341/11-417-S pmid: 22616929
[43] Kunert GG, Kunert IR, Da Costa FL, et al. Permanent teeth pulpotomy survival analysis: retrospective follow-up[J]. J Dent, 2015,43(9):1125-1131. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2015.06.010.
doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2015.06.010 pmid: 26144188
[44] Alqaderi H, Lee CT, Borzangy S, et al. Coronal pulpotomy for cariously exposed permanent posterior teeth with closed apices: a systematic review and meta-analysis[J]. J Dent, 2016,44:1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2015.12.005.
doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2015.12.005 pmid: 26687672
[45] Akhlaghi N, Khademi A. Outcomes of vital pulp therapy in permanent teeth with different medicaments based on review of the literature[J]. Dent Res J (Isfahan), 2015,12(5):406-417. doi: 10.4103/1735-3327.166187.
doi: 10.4103/1735-3327.166187
[46] Petrou MA, Alhamoui FA, Welk A, et al. A randomized clinical trial on the use of medical Portland cement, MTA and Calcium hydroxide in indirect pulp treatment[J]. Clin Oral Investig, 2014,18(5):1383-1389. doi: 10.1007/s00784-013-1107-z.
doi: 10.1007/s00784-013-1107-z pmid: 24043482
[47] Komabayashi T, Zhu Q, Eberhart R, et al. Current status of direct pulp-capping materials for permanent teeth[J]. Dent Mater J, 2016,35(1):1-12. doi: 10.4012/dmj.2015-013.
doi: 10.4012/dmj.2015-013 pmid: 26830819
[48] Suhag K, Duhan J, Tewari S, et al. Success of direct pulp capping using mineral trioxide aggregate and Calcium hydroxide in mature permanent molars with pulps exposed during carious tissue removal: 1-year follow-up[J]. J Endod, 2019,45(7):840-847. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2019.02.025.
doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2019.02.025 pmid: 31104819
[49] Kang CM, Kim SH, Shin Y, et al. A randomized controlled trial of ProRoot MTA, OrthoMTA and RetroMTA for pulpotomy in primary molars[J]. Oral Dis, 2015,21(6):785-791. doi: 10.1111/odi.12348.
pmid: 25970794
[50] Omidi S, Bagheri M, Fazli M, et al. The effect of different pulp-capping materials on proliferation, migration and cytokine secretion of human dental pulp stem cells[J]. Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2020,23(6):768-775. doi: 10.22038/ijbms.2020.41511.9814.
doi: 10.22038/ijbms.2020.41511.9814 pmid: 32695293
[51] Na TH, Abdulkhader SZ. Full pulpotomy with biodentine in symptomatic young permanent teeth with carious exposure[J]. J Endod, 2018,44(6):932-937. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2018.03.003.
doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2018.03.003 pmid: 29681479
[52] Rao Q, Kuang J, Mao C, et al. Comparison of iRoot BP plus and Calcium hydroxide as pulpotomy materials in permanent incisors with complicated crown fractures: a retrospective study[J]. J Endod, 2020,46(3):352-357. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2019.12.010.
doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2019.12.010 pmid: 32035640
[53] Okamoto M, Takahashi Y, Komichi S, et al. Novel evaluation method of dentin repair by direct pulp capping using high-resolution micro-computed tomography[J]. Clin Oral Investig, 2018,22(8):2879-2887. doi: 10.1007/s00784-018-2374-5.
pmid: 29435662
[54] Matsuura T, Ziauddin SM, Kawata-Matsuura V, et al. Long-term clinical and radiographic evaluation of the effectiveness of direct pulp capping materials: a meta-analysis[J]. Dent Mater J, 2020: 2020-2043. doi: 10.4012/dmj.2020-043.
[55] Harms CS, Schäfer E, Dammaschke T. Clinical evaluation of direct pulp capping using a Calcium silicate cement-treatment outcomes over an average period of 2.3 years[J]. Clin Oral Investig, 2019,23(9):3491-3499. doi: 10.1007/s00784-018-2767-5.
doi: 10.1007/s00784-018-2767-5 pmid: 30539291
[56] Wolters WJ, Duncan HF, Tomson PL, et al. Minimally invasive endodontics: a new diagnostic system for assessing pulpitis and subsequent treatment needs[J]. Int Endod J, 2017,50(9):825-829. doi: 10.1111/iej.12793.
doi: 10.1111/iej.12793 pmid: 28776717
[57] Ansari G, Safi AH, Taheri P, et al. Laser pulpotomy-an effective alternative to conventional techniques-a systematic review of literature and meta-analysis[J]. Lasers Med Sci, 2018,33(8):1621-1629. doi: 10.1007/s10103-018-2588-4.
doi: 10.1007/s10103-018-2588-4 pmid: 30014215
[58] 周学东, 黄定明, 刘建国, 等. 牙髓损伤的活髓保存治疗[J]. 华西口腔医学杂志, 2017,35(4):339-347. doi: 10.7518/hxkq.2017.04.001.
Zhou XD, Huang DM, Liu JG, et al. Vital pulp therapy of damaged dental pulp[J]. West China J Stomatol, 2017,35(4):339-347. doi: 10.7518/hxkq.2017.04.001.
[59] Hanna SN, Perez AR, Prichard J. Vital pulp therapy an insight over the available literature and future expectations[J]. Eur Endod J, 2020,5(1):46-53. doi: 10.14744/eej.2019.44154.
doi: 10.14744/eej.2019.44154 pmid: 32342038
[1] WANG Qianqian,DING Dandan,DING Xiang,HAN Rui,HAN Yingying,ZHOU Meiyun,XU Jincheng. Expression of Bex1 and NF-kBp65 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma and its significance [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2021, 29(6): 383-387.
[2] LI Ming,NAN Xinrong,YUAN Zhenying,TANG Zhangui. Accuracy analysis of MRI in the depth of invasion assessment of tongue squamous cell carcinoma [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2021, 29(5): 322-327.
[3] ZHOU Fangjie,HE Libang,LI Jiyao. Application of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) in the treatment of pulp diseases [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2021, 29(3): 202-205.
[4] LU Lidan,XU Hui. Research progress on autologous fat transplantation in the treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2021, 29(2): 135-139.
[5] YANG Hui,WANG Xiang,ZHANG Lei,WANG Wenmei,DUAN Ning,LI Ruowei,ZHANG Miaomiao. Clinical analysis of 19 cases of oral mucosal malignant melanoma [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2021, 29(12): 843-847.
[6] CHEN Zhen,ZHANG Wenbo,PENG Xin. Research progress on the neck management of oral squamous cell carcinoma with clinically node-positive neck [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2021, 29(11): 776-781.
[7] ZHANG Qianyu,YANG Peixin,CHEN Boshen,WANG lin,HUANG Zhiquan. Synchronous double primary malignant tumours of the tongue and lung: a case report and literature review [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2020, 28(9): 586-589.
[8] ZHANG Sui,HE Dongning. Current status of immediate implant placement in the aesthetic zone of the anterior teeth [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2020, 28(5): 331-335.
[9] WANG Yueyang,ZHANG Lili,ZHOU Weiwei,WANG Nan. Retrospective study of flexible fiber splints in the treatment of horizontal root fractures in permanent teeth [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2020, 28(3): 163-168.
[10] TAO Qian,HE Yue,LIU Bing,HOU Jinsong,NAN Xinrong,ZHANG Bin,ZHANG Leitao,QIAO Bin. Expert consensus on marsupialization of cystic lesions of the jaw [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2020, 28(2): 69-72.
[11] YUAN Kaifang,CHEN Weiliang,ZHOU Bin,ZHANG Daming. Comparison of the clinical effect of a facial-submental artery island flap in reconstruction after resection of oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2020, 28(2): 84-87.
[12] LI Ruichun,JING Kaian,WANG Lina,MA Rui,JING Jie,MA Jian. Malformation of Wharton′s duct with multiple sialoliths: a case report and literature review [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2020, 28(2): 93-96.
[13] TAN Xuelian,NING Jiali,XU Weizhe,WANG Liu,ZHANG Lan,ZHENG Guangning,HUANG Dingming. Case report and literature review of vital pulp preservation by endodontic microsurgery at the distal buccal root of maxillary molar [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2020, 28(11): 723-727.
[14] LIN Xi,ZHENG Xianghuai,XU Shulan. Dental implant progress in children and adolescents [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2020, 28(11): 728-732.
[15] BAO Baicheng,WANG Xi. Study and application of an eye tracking technique in dental aesthetics [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2020, 28(10): 623-629.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] . [J]. journal1, 2016, 24(1): 58 -60 .
[2] Ming-wen FAN. Procedure refinement, easy operation--root canal treatment progress[J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2016, 24(3): 133 -136 .
[3] Juan LI,Ting HUANG,Wen XUE,Hai-yan LI. Clinical efficacy of basic periodontal therapy combined with local medication for erosive oral lichen planus[J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2016, 24(3): 162 -165 .
[4] Yan-mei YAN,Tao HE,Can-can MA,Pin-xuan ZHENG,Qi LIU. Research progress of the influence of vitamin D on periodontitis[J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2016, 24(2): 114 -117 .
[5] Zeng-wen YUE,Jin-zhong LIU,Bao-yu ZHU,Zheng-guang CHEN. Expression of transketolase-like protein 1 in human tongue carcinoma and its meaning[J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2016, 24(3): 150 -153 .
[6] . [J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2016, 24(5): 317 -320 .
[7] Ming CHEN,Xi CHEN,Zhen-ting ZHANG. The precision comparison of the denture occlusal plane preparation by the occlusal plane plate between experienced and newly-graduated dentists[J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2016, 24(3): 173 -176 .
[8] Zhen ZHANG,Hong-yu ZHAO. Chronic periodontitis and its related microRNA[J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2016, 24(6): 378 -380 .
[9] Hong-chang LAI,Jun-yu SHI. Maxillary sinus floor elevation[J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2017, 25(1): 8 -12 .
[10] Pin ZHOU, Yang-fei LI. MRI study of temporomandibular joint disc position in asymptomatic volunteers[J]. Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2017, 25(4): 239 -244 .
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.