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Management strategy of oral mucosal diseases during the epidemic of Corona Virus Disease 2019
LIU Chuanxia,FU Ji,HAO Yilong,HE Hong,CHEN Qianming
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2020, 28 (3): 178-183.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2020.03.008
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Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has broke out in 29 countries and regions in the world in a short period since December 2019. Various measures of prevention and control have been taken all over China. At present, the epidemic situation shows a positive trend, however, there are still a few new comfirmed cases in some area of China. So the job and thinking of epidemic prevention still cannot be relaxed. As an important specialty of stomatology, the risk of cross infection is high in oral medicine. Establishing an effective system of pre-inspection and triage and adopting strict measures of prevention and control are essential. According to the prevention and control situation of COVID-19, the characteristics of hospital infection, pre examination, protective measures, the home management strategies of oral mucosal diseases during the epidemic period and the differential diagnosis between COVID-19 and common oral mucosal diseases with fever were summarized and recommended in this paper.

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Administrative strategy of dental clinic during the epidemic of Corona Virus Disease 2019
LI Mei, CHEN Yifan, CHENG Fanping, HOU Yarong, YIN Wenjuan, ZHAO Jianjiang, HUANG Shaohong
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2020, 28 (7): 409-415.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2020.07.001
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Since an epidemic occur of Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19) in December, 2019, all the dental healthcare service providers in our country have been greatly impacted. The strategy of managing the dental clinics is quite different from that of the medical healthcare clinics, and the key point of the administration of those dental healthcare providers is to focus on the management of outpatient care because they only supply just a little bit of inpatient care service but quite an large amount of outpatient care service. So we think the next step is to make plausible and effective scenarios to protect our dental healthcare staff and patients against corona virus infection during the treatments procedures after the reopening all of our dental clinics. To overcome this harsh condition, the infection prevention and control strategies adopted by the Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University were designed to be flexible and could be adjusted promptly according to the national and local governmental orders and latest guidelines released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. All these prevention procedures and protocols were customized to fit our own situation and have been updated for several times based on the latest global pandemic reports. After going through the hardest time in the past four months, it’s considered that our COVID-19 prevention rules have been proved to be efficient and work well. Further more, it has made massive progress for the hospital in improving the capability of dealing with this state of emergency, especially by previewing and triaging patients strictly to cut off the possible coronavirus spreading from the original step, enhancing the standard precautions and those specific protocols made for minimizing the droplets, aerosol and contact transmission of COVID-19 indoors. Besides, a daily supervision system was set up as a routine job and a team of qualified infection prevention specialists were assigned to check and report every incorrect details during the whole procedure of dental practice. Meanwhile, the safety and well-being of the public and our medical workers could be also guaranteed through following those detailed prevention scenarios.

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Research and application of stem cell-derived exosomes in regenerative medicine
YE Qingsong, HU Fengting, LUO Lihua, Maria Troulis
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2020, 28 (1): 1-10.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2020.01.001
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Stem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells with high self-renewal and rapid proliferative capabilities. Undercertain conditions, stem cells can induce differentiation into other tissue cells of the human body, such as skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, osteoblasts, and nerve-like cells. In recent years, with the development of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, stem cells have been extensively used in various fields of regenerative medicine as optimal seeded cells; however, there are still some problems, such as the decreased cell survival rate and regenerative capacity after transplantation, immune rejection, and ethical supervision. Therefore, it is difficult to universally and safely use stem cell banks for regeneration applications. The paracrine effect of stem cells has been extensively studied since its discovery. Increasing evidence supports the view that stem cells act in paracrine manner, and the secretion of exosomes plays a vital role in their biological functions. Exosomes are nanoscale extracellular vesicles containing biologically active molecules such as RNA and proteins; they possess similar functions to stem cells and play important roles in cell communication, immune response, and repair of tissue damage. At present, clinical studies on stem cell exosomes in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have also been carried out in the fields of bone and cartilage repair, nerve tissue regeneration, liver tissue regeneration, skeletal muscle tissue engineering, vascular regeneration, taste bud repair, tooth regeneration, etc. In this paper, the composition, formation, release and identification of exosomes are introduced in detail. The research status of exosomes from different stem cell sources in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is described, and their broad application prospects are discussed.

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Host modulation therapy in periodontitis
ZHOU Zheng,QI Xia,YANG Dongru
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2019, 27 (11): 681-688.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2019.11.001
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Host modulation therapy (HMT), as a treatment concept for periodontitis, aims to modulate the host immune responses during the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Various drugs have been evaluated as HMT, including subdose doxycycline (SDD), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), bisphosphonates, and cytokine receptors, to modify or modulate inflammatory mediators and associated signaling pathways in the immune-inflammatory response, as well as connective tissue breakdown and bone resorption. SDD, a member of the tetracycline drug family, has been reported to improve periodontal treatment outcomes by inhibiting periodontal breakdown through inhibiting MMPs. NSAIDs may suppress periodontal inflammation by reducing cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) activity. Combined application of SSD and NSAIDs may achieve a better clinical outcome. Recent studies of HMT treatment have focused on the prevention of excessive inflammation by regulating mediators using endogenous lipid mediators. Local administration of bisphosphonates and histone deacetylase inhibitors can inhibit osteoclast activity and regulate bone tissue remodeling. Currently, SSD is approved by the FDA for periodontal treatment. Other drugs, such as COX-2 selective inhibitor, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, bisphosphonates, triclosan and iNOS inhibitors, have good application prospects in the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease, and the mechanism and side effects of these drugs remain to be further investigated.

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Gene ontology analysis of the TNF signaling pathway in early orthodontic tooth movement of rats with periodontitis
MA Yao,JIANG Zhaowei,JIN Yunyi,MIAO Qian,ZHANG Chunxiang,ZHANG Linkun
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2019, 27 (11): 695-702.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2019.11.003
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Objective To investigate the expression and function of the TNF signaling pathway in the early stage of orthodontic tooth movement with periodontitis and to provide evidence to study the early inflammatory response in patients with periodontitis orthodontic treatment. Methods Sixteen SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: group A--12 h of orthodontic tooth movement of the bilateral maxillary first molars in rats with periodontitis; group B--periodontitis model of the bilateral maxillary first molars without orthodontic tooth movement; group C--12 h of orthodontic tooth movement of the same teeth in rats with healthy periodontium; group D--control group without operations. The bilateral maxillary first molars and surrounding periodontal tissue of each group were collected for gene chip detection. Pathway enrichment analysis, qRT-PCR and GO (gene ontology) analysis were performed to identify differential genes involved in the TNF signaling pathway. Results Gene chip results showed that the TNF signaling pathway was significantly upregulated in group A, group B and group C (P <0.01). Among the differential genes involved in the pathway, 28 were upregulated and 5 were downregulated in group A, 12 were upregulated and 4 were downregulated in group B, and 12 were upregulated and 1 was downregulated in group C (P <0.05). The most significant GO items included "response to lipopolysaccharide", "inflammatory response", "positive regulation of NF-κB transcription factor activity", "positive regulation of NF-κB import into nucleus" and "response to hypoxia"(P <0.001). qRT-PCR results showed no significant difference in TNF-α mRNA expression in group C compared with that in group D, TNF-α was upregulated in both groups A and B (P <0.01), and mRNA expression decreased in the following order: group A > group B > group C (P <0.05). Compared with group D, the expression levels of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) and interleukin-6 ( IL-6) in groups A, B and C were significantly upregulated (P <0.05), but the expression levels of PTGS2 and IL-6 in group A were lower than those in group B (P < 0.05). Conclusion The TNF signaling pathway is activated in the early stage of orthodontic tooth movement in rats with periodontitis. The pathway products participate in many biological processes and play an important role in the inflammatory response and bone absorption.
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Expert consensus on marsupialization of cystic lesions of the jaw
TAO Qian,HE Yue,LIU Bing,HOU Jinsong,NAN Xinrong,ZHANG Bin,ZHANG Leitao,QIAO Bin
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2020, 28 (2): 69-72.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2020.02.001
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Marsupialization is effective in the treatment of cystic lesions of the jaw. It is a simple operation that can result in minimal trauma, the reduction of postoperative recurrence, and maximum preservation of the surrounding tissue structure and function. However, there is a certain failure rate in clinical treatment due to the improper grasp of indications and nonstandard operation. The highest failure rate reported in the literature is 32.6%. To further standardize the clinical application of marsupialization and improve the success rate of treatment, we put forward an expert consensus of marsupialization in the treatment of jaw cystic lesions by reviewing the domestic and foreign literature and summarizing the experience in marsupialization from some famous domestic experts. In this consensus, we propose three elements of marsupialization: the establishment of the opening, the maintenance of cyst plugs and regular washing. The scope of application of marsupialization includes jaw cysts and cystic ameloblastomas. It is necessary to standardize the position of the opening, the size of the opening and the manufacture of the cyst plug, and a panoramic film or cone beam computed tomography(CBCT) should be used to observe the changes in the cystic cavit