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    Changes and clinical significance of four biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid after nonsurgical periodontal therapy
    ZHANG Qian,CHEN Bin,YAN Fuhua
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (12): 828-835.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.12.005
    Abstract1085)   HTML28)    PDF(pc) (1320KB)(189)       Save

    Objective To study the changes in levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with severe chronic periodontitis before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy and to explore the relationship among the levels of these four biomarkers in GCF, their periodontal status and their clinical significance to evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy and periodontitis activity. Methods In total, 30 patients with severe chronic periodontitis were enrolled in a 1-year longitudinal pilot study (Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-OCH-13004679). At baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after nonsurgical therapy, the periodontal clinical indicators plaque index (PLI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), sulcus bleeding index (SBI) were recorded. Filter paper strips were used to collect two deep-pocket (probing depth ≥ 6 mm) and two shallow-pocket (probing depth ≤ 4 mm) periodontal sites for each patient and weighed. The levels of interleukin IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and ALP in GCF were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Meanwhile, 30 healthy sites of 15 subjects with healthy periodontium were used as the baseline controls for patients with severe chronic periodontitis. Results At the baseline, the TNF-α, ALP and IL-6 levels in GCF of the disease sites of patients with periodontitis were significantly higher than those in healthy periodontal sites of the control group (P < 0.001), and the levels of IL-10 were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.001). In patients with severe chronic periodontitis, the levels of TNF-α, ALP and IL-6 in GCF at deep-pocket sites were significantly higher than those at shallow-pocket sites (P <0.001), and the IL-10 levels were significantly lower than those at shallow-pocket sites (P < 0.001). 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after nonsurgical treatment, the levels of TNF-α and ALP in GCF at the shallow- and deep-pocket sites in patients with chronic periodontitis significantly decreased, the level of IL-10 significantly increased (P < 0.005), and the level of IL-6 in GCF at the deep-pocket sites significantly decreased (P < 0.005). However, there was no significant difference in IL-6 level at shallow-pocket sites (P > 0.05). 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after nonsurgical treatment, the periodontal clinical indicators were improved compared with the baseline. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the levels of these four biomarkers and the periodontal clinical parameters (P < 0.05). During the two follow-up visits after nonsurgical periodontal therapy, the sites with more than 2-mm increase in attachment loss had significant differences in the levels of the four biomarkers in the GCF compared with the previous visit time (P < 0.005). Conclusion The detection of the levels of these four biomarkers in GCF has strong clinical significance for assessing the severity of periodontitis and the efficacy of nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Increased levels of TNF-α, ALP, and IL-6 and decreased IL-10 levels in GCF may indicate periodontitis progression at this site.

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    Role of mesenchymal stem cells migration in bone injury repair
    YAN Shanyu,MEI Hongxiang,LI Juan
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (12): 854-858.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.12.009
    Abstract930)   HTML20)    PDF(pc) (793KB)(180)       Save

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of self-replication and multi-directional differentiation, which are very important for the development and reconstruction of mesenchymal tissue. Bone tissue damage repair involves the participation of various cells and molecules. The recovery of bone mass requires sufficiently many MSCs to migrate to the damaged site to perform the reconstruction function. The local inflammatory response at the injury site can recruit MSCs and promote new bone formation. Simultaneously, niche changes during the migration of MSCs will affect their biological performance and initiate the phase of directed differentiation. This article explores the relevant mechanisms that mediate the migration of MSCs in the process of bone injury repair, including the regulation of immune cells and chemotactic signaling molecules in the inflammatory response in the bone repair stage through signaling pathways such as BMP/Smads. Then, it summarizes the mechanism by which the high matrix stiffness upregulates the expression of the integrin and focal adhesions to promote the MSCs migration and osteogenic differentiation. Simultaneously, the migration ability of MSCs can be regulated through drugs or genetic modification to promote the bone injury repair. The improvement of MSCs migration ability can shorten the time of bone tissue damage repair and improve the bone quality. This article reviews the role of the MSCs migration ability in bone tissue injury repair to provide a reference for the application of MSCs with high migration ability in the fields of stem cell therapy for bone related diseases and bone tissue engineering.

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    Research and development concept of barrier membranes based on “ immune microenvironment regulation”
    CHEN Zetao,LIN Yixiong,YANG Jieting,HUANG Baoxin,CHEN Zhuofan
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (8): 505-514.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.08.001
    Abstract800)   HTML37)    PDF(pc) (2033KB)(180)       Save

    Guided bone regeneration technology applied in alveolar bone defect regeneration is based on the barrier function and space maintenance of the barrier membrane. Therefore, traditional development strategies for barrier membranes focus on their physical barrier function, degradation characteristics and biocompatibility to avoid immunogenicity. However, not only does the barrier membrane passively block connective tissue, it is recognized as a “foreign body”that triggers a persistent host immune response, known as a foreign body reaction. The theories of osteoimmunology reveal a close relationship between the immune system and bone system and emphasize the role of immune cells in bone tissue-related pathophysiological processes. Based on these findings, we propose a novel development strategy for barrier membranes based on immune microenvironment regulation: by manipulating mechanical properties, surface properties and physiochemical properties, barrier membranes are endowed with an improved immunomodulation ability, which helps to regulate immune cell reactions to induce a favorable local immune microenvironment, thus coordinating osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis as well as barrier membrane degradation to increase the efficiency of barrier membranes in GBR applications. In this paper, we review the development of barrier membranes and their close relationship to the immune microenvironment concerning bone regeneration and membrane degradation. Additionally, the outcomes of research on barrier membranes based on the regulation of the immune microenvironment have been summarized to improve the osteogenesis efficiency of barrier membranes and solve the problem of the regeneration and repair of bone defects, especially alveolar bone defects.

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    New progress in the pathogenesis of traumatic temporomandibular joint ankylosis
    HU Kaijin, MA Zhen, WANG Yiming, DENG Tiange
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (12): 793-800.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.12.001
    Abstract591)   HTML57)    PDF(pc) (956KB)(197)       Save

    Traumatic temporomandibular joint ankylosis refers to fibrous or bony fusion between the condyle and the glenoid fossa. It can cause problems with mouth-opening limitations, mastication difficulties, obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome. When traumatic temporomandibular joint ankylosis occurs during childhood, it can cause facial asymmetry, micrognathia, and malocclusion, which significantly affect the physical and mental health. Once temporomandibular joint ankylosis occurs, it will be refractory and recurrent. The pathogenesis of temporomandibular joint ankylosis has not been completely elucidated and has always been a research hotspot in the oral and maxillofacial fields. In this paper, worldwide research was conducted, and the pathogenesis of traumatic temporomandibular joint ankylosis was clarified, such as “damage of condyle”,“disc displacement or rupture”,“damage to the glenoid fossa” and “lateral pterygoid muscle distraction”. The relative pathogenesis hypotheses were summarized, such as “hematoma organization” and “lateral pterygoid muscle distraction osteogenesis”. The related pathogenesis of traumatic temporomandibular joint ankylosis was discussed based on the latest cytology and molecular biology research.

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    CBCT study of the root and root canal morphology of mandibular second molars in a population in western Guangxi
    XING Huiyan,HU Yuping,JIANG Wenqiong,ZHANG Ran,WEI Fangyuan,TAN Yanning,DENG Min,LI Shufang
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (12): 836-842.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.12.006
    Abstract411)   HTML15)    PDF(pc) (2042KB)(119)       Save

    Objective To observe the root and root canal morphology of mandibular second molars in Western Guangxi by CBCT, to provide a reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods In total, 564 patients′ 1 128 mandibular second molars that satisfy the inclusion criteria were analyzed with a planmecaromexis CBCT machine and its own image analysis software. The patients′ gender, age and ethnic differences in the root and canal morphology and the symmetry of the bilateral root and canal were statistically analyzed. Results Among the 1 128 mandibular second molars, 662 were the Zhuang ethnic group and 384 were the Han ethnic group, and 82 were other ethnic groups; the double root type and C-shaped root type accounted for a relatively high proportion: 73.94% and 24.47%, respectively. The detection rates of the double root type were higher in males than in females (P < 0.05); the detection rates of the C-shaped root type were higher in females than in males (P <0.05); the root type of the teeth was mainly double-rooted in the Zhuang ethnic group (P<0.01). The incidence of type IV in the mesial root of the double root type mandibular second molar was the highest (P < 0.01), and the incidence of type I in the distal root was the highest (P < 0.01). The C-shaped root canal is more continuous at the mouth of the root canal, more downward corresponds to a worse continuity: in three different levels of root canal orifice, root middle and root apex, the root canal orifice is dominated by the C1 type, and both root middle and root apex are mainly C3-type (P < 0.01). The difference in symmetry of bilateral roots and root canals was statistically significant among different gender groups, age groups, and ethnic groups (P < 0.05): there were more males than females, the results in the 18-35-year-old group and the Zhuang ethnic group were higher. Conclusion The root and root canal morphology of mandibular second molars in western Guangxi people are complex and changeable. The roots are mainly double root type in the Han ethnic group and the Zhuang ethnic group. C-shaped roots are also common. The detection rate of C-shaped roots in the Zhuang ethnic group was higher, and the symmetry rate of bilateral roots and that of bilateral root canals was higher in the Zhuang ethnic group than in the Han ethnic group.

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    In vitro study of different methods in the removal of calcium hydroxide from root canals
    TANG Lan,PENG Bin
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (8): 523-528.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.08.003
    Abstract404)   HTML25)    PDF(pc) (2027KB)(131)       Save

    Objective To compare the efficacy of different methods in the removal of calcium hydroxide from root canals and to provide a reference for clinical treatment. Methods A total of 160 extracted single-rooted mandibular premolars were instrumented up to ProTaper Universal F4. The roots were split longitudinally, and standardized groove and depression models were prepared and filled with calcium hydroxide. The samples were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=40) according to different irrigation methods: syringe needle irrigation, passive ultrasonic irrigation, XP-endo finisher (XPF) irrigation, and M3-Max irrigation. Each group was then divided into 2 subgroups (n=20) according to the irrigation protocol: NaOCl and NaOCl+EDTA. Photos of grooves and depressions were taken under a microscope after irrigation, and the residual calcium hydroxide was scored to compare the removal effects of different irritation methods and solutions. Results In the groove and depression model, when sodium hypochlorite is used as the irrigation fluid, ultrasound irrigation, XPF and M3-Max are better than syringe needle irrigation in removing calcium hydroxide (P < 0.05); when sodium hypochlorite combined with EDTA flushing, the effect of removing calcium hydroxide with ultrasound irrigation, XPF and M3-Max is better than that of syringe needle irrigation (P < 0.05); but there is no statistically significant difference between ultrasound, XPF and M3-Max (P > 0.05); when compared with the use of sodium hypochlorite, the combined use of EDTA irrigation could enhance the effect of ultrasonic irrigation, XPF and M3 Max on the removal of calcium hydroxide (P < 0.05), but there was no significant improvement in the syringe needle irrigation group (P > 0.05). Conclusion Sodium hypochlorite combined with EDTA can enhance the effect of ultrasonic irrigation, XPF and M3 Max on the removal of calcium hydroxide, and there is no significant difference among these approaches, which are more effective than syringe needle irrigation.

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    Clinical analysis of 19 cases of oral mucosal malignant melanoma
    YANG Hui,WANG Xiang,ZHANG Lei,WANG Wenmei,DUAN Ning,LI Ruowei,ZHANG Miaomiao
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (12): 843-847.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.12.007
    Abstract394)   HTML17)    PDF(pc) (2421KB)(153)       Save

    Objective To investigate the clinicopathological features, treatment and prognosis of oralmucosal malignant melanoma to provide a reference for clinical practice. Methods Data from 19 patients with oralmucosal malignant melanoma were collected, and their clinical manifestations, treatment methods and follow-up results were retrospectively analyzed. Results Among the 19 patients, 11 cases (58%) had lesions in the gingiva, 7 cases (37%) had lesions in the palate, and 1 case (5%) had lesions in the tongue, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Eight patients had regional lymph node metastasis with a metastasis rate of 42%, of which 4 cases had multiple site metastasis, and the total number of regional lymph node metastasis sites was 15. Among the 19 patients, 3 cases received only surgery, 4 cases received cryotherapy, and 12 cases received combined surgery, cryotherapy and biological immunotherapy. Pathological examination showed malignant melanoma. The positive rates of S-100, HMB-45 and Melan-A were 95%, 89% and 84%, respectively. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with lesions less than 5 cm2 had a higher survival rate (P < 0.05). Conclusions Oral malignant melanomas usually present as black lesions in the oral mucosa, which are prone to metastasis in early stage. The area of lesions may affect the prognosis of the disease. Therefore, the large range of black lesions or masses should be the alert for the clinicians. Oral malignant melanoma patients are usually treated with combined treatment with surgery, cryotherapy and biological immunotherapy.

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    Application of plasmatrix in horizontal bone augmentation for implant placement
    ZHANG Yufeng, WANG Yulan
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2022, 30 (3): 153-159.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.03.001
    Abstract303)   HTML59)    PDF(pc) (4087KB)(1225)       Save

    Tooth loss is accompanied by alveolar bone absorption or defect, resulting in insufficient bone and soft tissue. In addition to restoring the masticatory function of missing teeth, implant treatment should also needs to restore the contour and shape of the dental arch. Guided bone regeneration is a common means of bone increase. Xenogeneic granular bone substitute materials are widely used in the field of clinical bone augmentation due to their advantages of long degradation time and low immunogenicity, but other problems, such as inconvenient operation and low osteogenic activity, remain. Plasmatrix can effectively improve the effect of oral tissue regeneration and reduce the occurrence of postoperative complications, and its application in oral tissue regeneration is gradually increasing. This article first introduces the main application forms of plasmatrix in horizontal bone augmentation (mainly solid plasmatrix membrane and plasmatrix bone block), and reclassifies horizontal bone defects according to commonly used decision-making schemes in clinical bone augmentation, in other words, whether the implant can be placed in the ideal position and whether there is bone dehiscence after implantation. Type Ⅰ defects refers to the situation where the bone at the implant site can allow the insertion of an implant with ideal size, and there is no bone dehiscence around the implant, but the alveolar bone contour is not ideal; type Ⅱ defects refers to the situation that when an ideal size implant is placed at the implant site determined by the future prosthesis position, there will be bones on three sides of the implant, but there is bone dehiscence in the buccal bone wall (the length of bone dehiscence is less than 50% of the implant length); type Ⅲ defects refers to the situation where the bone volume at the implant site is not enough to for the placement of the ideal size implant at the ideal position, and bone grafting is required to restore the bone volume before the implant placement. The application of plasmatrix in different types of bone defects is then described. In type Ⅰ bone defects, the solid plasmatrix membrane is used instead of the collagen membrane; in type Ⅱ bone defects, the bone defect around the implant is filled by plasmatrix bone block and then covered with collagen membrane and solid plasmatrix membrane; and in type Ⅲ bone defects, plasmatrix bone block is used to replace autogenous bone block to fill the defect area, and titanium screws are used for fixation. The defect is then covered with a collagen membrane and a solid plasmatrix membrane. This article aims to provide oral clinicians with a comprehensive understanding of plasmatrix and simplify the guidelines for bone regeneration operations.

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    Construction of the hit-deficient mutant strain of Streptococcus mutans ATCC25175
    LAI Yangfan,WANG Peng,QIAO Li,LIU Zhongjing,YE Zhaoyang,LIANG Yan
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (12): 801-808.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.12.002
    Abstract292)   HTML28)    PDF(pc) (2858KB)(132)       Save

    Objective To construct a hit-deficient mutant strain of S. mutans ATCC25175 and verify its cell cycle regulatory function. Method Genomic DNA was extracted from S. mutans ATCC25175 strains, and then the upstream and downstream DNA fragments of the hit gene were cloned into the pFW5 vector (spectinomycin resistant) to construct recombinant plasmids using PCR amplification. Third, employed by natural genetic transformation in S. mutans ATCC25175 strains, the linearized recombinant plasmids were transformed into their genetic competence, induced by the synthesized competence-stimulating peptide (CSP), and then, homologous recombination was utilized to produce crossover and noncrossover products. Fourth, the hit-deficient mutant strains of S. mutans ATCC25175 were screened through the spectinomycin-resistance marker and identified by the electrophoresis of PCR products and PCR Sanger sequencing. Finally, its growth rate in vegetative BHI medium was also investigated. Results The upstream (856 bp) and downstream (519 bp) DNA fragments of the hit gene from the genomic DNA materials of S. mutans ATCC25175 were cloned into two multiple cloning sites (MCS-I and MCS-II) of the pFW5 vector, respectively, and the recombinant plasmid pFW5_hit_Up_Down was constructed and identified by double-emzyme digestion and PCR Sanger sequencing. The linearized recombinant plasmids were transformed into their genetic competence, induced by the synthetic CSP, and then, homologous recombination was utilized to produce various products. The hit-deficient mutant strains of S. mutans ATCC25175 were screened through the spectinomycin resistance marker and identified by the electrophoresis of PCR products and Sanger sequencing. The growth rate of the hit-deficient mutant strains versus their parental S. mutans ATCC25175 strains was increased greatly (P<0.001). Conclusion The hit-deficient mutant strains of S. mutans ATCC25175, having heritable traits, were successfully constructed, and the encoding Hit protein is growth-phase regulated in the cell cycle.

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    Preparation and antibacterial properties of a copper-niobium coating on a titanium surface by a microarc oxidation-microwave hydrothermal method
    WANG Tianqi,DU Qing,XIE Weili
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (11): 733-739.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.11.002
    Abstract271)   HTML12)    PDF(pc) (6233KB)(129)       Save

    Objective To prepare a copper-nobium antibacterial coating on a titanium surface by a microarc oxidation-microwave hydrothermal two-step method and to study its surface structure and antibacterial properties. Methods Using titanium coated with a microarc oxidation coating (MAO group) as the substrate, copper and niobium were introduced by a microwave hydrothermal method in low (MHL-Cu group), medium (MHM-Cu group) and high (MHH-Cu group) copper chloride solutions and niobium oxalate (MH-Nb group) solutions, respectively. The component with the highest copper content was determined by energy spectrum analysis, and the copper-niobium composite coating (MH-Cu/Nb group) was prepared by microwave hydrothermal mixing with niobium oxalate. The microstructure, element distribution and phase composition of the specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry and X-ray diffraction, and the bacteriostatic effect of the coating onEscherichia coliand Staphylococcus aureus was determined by the film method. Results Energy dispersive spectrometry showed that Cu was introduced onto the surface of the MHL-Cu, MHM-Cu, and MHH-Cu groups, and the atomic ratios of copper in each group were (0.68 ± 0.04)%,(1.17 ± 0.06)%, and (1.64 ± 0.03)%. The difference between groups was statistically significant (P< 0.01). Scanning electron microscopy showed a crater-like porous structure on the surface of the MAO group, and the MHL-Cu, MHM-Cu, MHH-Cu, MH-Nb, MH-Cu/Nb groups maintained micropore morphology. The roughness increased with increasing Cu2+ concentration, in which the MH-Nb and MH-Cu/Nb groups showed gully like structures simultaneously. X-ray diffraction showed that the coating of the MAO group was mainly composed of titanium and anatase phase TiO2, and the coatings of the MHL-Cu, MHM-Cu, MHH-Cu, MH-Nb, MH-Cu/Nb groups were mainly composed of anatase and rutile phase TiO2. Compared with the MAO group, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in the MHH-Cu, MH-Nb, MH-Cu/Nb groups decreased to varying degrees, with significant differences (P< 0.001); compared with the MH-Cu/Nb group, the colony number difference had statistical significance (P> 0.05).Conclusion The rough, porous coating containing copper and niobium prepared by the microarc oxidation-microwave hydrothermal two-step method can effectively inhibit the growth ofEscherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Research progress on the reconstruction of mandibular defects in adolescents
    BIN Zhiwen,WANG Fang,HOU Jinsong
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (10): 711-715.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.10.011
    Abstract251)   HTML15)    PDF(pc) (830KB)(148)       Save

    Mandibular defects in adolescents are mostly caused by surgical resection of benign and malignant tumors, trauma and jaw inflammation. The reconstruction of mandibular defects in adolescents is challenging. In addition to solving the problem of jaw reconstruction in adults, some clinical factors, including the influence of surgery on the growth of donor and recipient areas, the long-term effects of reconstruction, and the outcome of bone grafts, must also be considered. At present, the main reconstructive methods include autogenous bone grafts and distraction osteogenesis. Autogenous bone grafts are still the gold standard due to their long-term effects. Favorable growth potential after repair was shown in adolescent cases of mandibular reconstruction with fibula flap. Normal occlusion was restored, and a long-term stable effect was achieved in cases of condylar reconstruction with costal cartilage. The safety and clinical effects of distraction osteogenesis have been confirmed, but the long-term effects of large-scale mandibular defects are still uncertain. In addition, other tissue engineering techniques also have good application prospects for the repair and reconstruction of adolescent mandible defects, but more in-depth basic research and more extensive clinical trials should be performed to verify the efficacy.

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    Prediction of the pharmacological characteristics and therapeutic mechanism of Tripterygium wilfordii in treating oral lichen planus based on network pharmacology
    WU Zeyu,ZHAO Jin,WANG Chen,GONG Yi,XUE Rui
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (12): 809-819.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.12.003
    Abstract243)   HTML20)    PDF(pc) (4998KB)(145)       Save

    Objective To explore the potential mechanism of the main active component Tripterygium wilfordii in the treatment of oral lichen planus based on network pharmacology. Methods The components of Tripterygium wilfordii and targets were searched through the Traditional Chinese Medicine system pharmacology database and analysis platform (TCMSP) and the Traditional Chinese Medicine integrated database (TCMID) databases. The related targets of oral lichen planus (OLP) were obtained through databases such as Gene Cards. The OLP targets were mapped by Venn analysis to the targets of Tripterygium wilfordii to screen out the common targets as the treatment of OLP targets of Tripterygium wilfordii. The Cytoscape software and STRING were used to construct a chemical component-target network and protein-protein interaction network, a network analyzer was used to compute the network topology properties, a cluster profiler software was used to analyze the GO classification enrichment analysis and KEGG signal path analysis, and a Tripterygium wilfordii chemical components-targets-pathway network diagram was constructed. Results Twenty-three components and 44 OLP treatmenttargets of Tripterygium wilfordii were obtained. The key active ingredients of Tripterygium wilfordii in the treatment of OLP are triptolide, kaempferol, and tangerine peel. The key targets include TNF and AKT1. The GO classification enrichment analysis obtained 63 GO terms, which are mainly involved in the leukocyte differentiation and reaction to lipopolysaccharides. The KEGG analysis identified 111 signaling pathways, which are mainly related to the TNF signaling pathway and IL17 signaling pathway. Conclusion Based on the network pharmacology, this study preliminarily revealed themain components, targets and pathways of Tripterygium wilfordii in the treatment of OLP. This study can provide a theoretical basis for further research to explore drugs with high activity and low toxicity to treat OLP from Tripterygium wilfordii.

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    Correlation between HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DRB1 gene polymorphisms and caries: a systematic review and Meta-analysis
    CHEN Yue,WU Zeyu,MO Yanli,JING Yinghao,LIU Yishan
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (12): 820-827.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.12.004
    Abstract236)   HTML16)    PDF(pc) (4048KB)(127)       Save

    Objective Systematic evaluation of the correlation of HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DRB1 allele polymorphisms with caries, to provide reference for caries prevention and treatment. Methods Relevant literature published before December 2020 was searched in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, and CBM databases. Meta-analysis was performed using the R4.0.2 software to test for heterogeneity and evaluate the publication bias. Results In total,10 case-control studies were included with 564 people in the case group and 676 people in the control group. The results of the Meta-analysis show that: ① HLA-DQB1*02 (OR=0.52, 95%CI=0.29-0.93, P < 0.05) and HLA-DRB1*09 (OR=0.34, 95%CI=0.21-0.58, P < 0.05) are protective factors of dental caries; ② HLA-DRB1*13 (OR=2.96, 95%CI=2.03-4.33, P < 0.05) and HLA-DRB1*14 (OR=1.95, 95%CI=1.26-3.02, P < 0.05) alleles are risk factors for the development of dental caries. The results of the subgroup analysis are: HLA-DRB1*07 is a caries susceptibility factor in the Chinese population (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.24-0.97, P < 0.05), while it is not statistically significant in the Brazilian and Turkish populations; HLA-DRB1*11 is a caries protective factor in the saliva group (OR=2.26, 95% CI=1.46-3.52, P < 0.05). 3.52, P < 0.001), while it is a caries susceptibility factor in the blood group (OR=0.09, 95% CI=0.12-0.34, P < 0.001). Conclusion HLA-DRB1*13 and HLA-DRB1*14 alleles are caries susceptibility genes, and HLA-DQB1*02 and HLA-DRB1*09 have protective effects on the caries development. HLA-DRB1*07 is a caries susceptibility gene in the Chinese population; HLA-DRB1*11 is a caries protective gene in the saliva group. Due to the limited sample size and quality of the included studies, more high-quality studies will be included later for verification.

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    Research progress on the relationship between IL-37 and periodontitis
    ZHENG Xu,XIE Chen,GAO Chang,GUO Zhuling
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (12): 859-864.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.12.010
    Abstract231)   HTML33)    PDF(pc) (1073KB)(187)       Save

    Periodontitis is the inflammation of periodontal tissue caused by dental plaque, which absorbs the alveolar bone and cementum. The immune response triggered by CD4+T cells is the key factor for the aggravation of periodontitis. The activation of dendritic cells and the receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand (RANKL) pathway is an important link in the alveolar bone resorption of periodontal tissue. Pro-inflammatory factors such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) also play important roles in the development of periodontitis. Interleukin-37(IL-37), which is a newly discovered cytokine in the IL-1 family, has five shear variants from a to e, among which the clover β-structure encoded by exon 4 plays an important role in the binding of cytokines and the corresponding receptors. IL-37 has strong anti-inflammatory and inhibition of autoimmunity, can enter the nucleus with the help of caspase-1 and bind with Smad proteins to regulate the transcription of pro-inflammatory genes. Extracellular IL-37 can bind to IL-18 binding protein and inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory factors. IL-37 can inhibit the progression of periodontitis by inhibiting the RANKL signaling pathway, inhibiting the proliferation and differentiation of dendritic cells and CD4+T cells, binding to Smad proteins, and releasing pro-inflammatory factors such as IFN-γ and TNF-α. The IL-37 concentration in periodontal tissue can indicate the progression of periodontitis. Few studies have described the interaction between the anti-inflammatory factor IL-37 and periodontitis. Thus, in this paper, the structure and function of IL-37 and the related factors between IL-37 and periodontitis will be reviewed.

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    Full-cycle management of endodontic microsurgery
    HUANG Xiangya,CAI Yanling,WEI Xi
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (10): 649-655.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.10.001
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    Contemporary endodontic microsurgery has emerged as a significant treatment modality in the retention of teeth with persistent apical periodontitis. This article proposes the concept of the full-cycle clinical management of endodontic microsurgery based on the condition of the patient and tooth, attempting to develop a comprehensive strategy for the examination, treatment and follow-up to save natural teeth. Full-cycle clinical management included preoperative consideration of the general condition and surgical site and selection of cases for endodontic microsurgery; intraoperative application of techniques such as lasers, "bone window" technique and targeted endodontic microsurgery to make the surgical approaches more varied and the operation minimally invasive; postoperative outcome assessment according to the history, clinical and radiographic examination; and analysis of the short- and long-term outcomes.

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    Diagnosis and treatment of benign condylar hyperplasia
    WANG Anxun
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (6): 361-367.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.06.001
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    Benign condylar hyperplasia is one of the causes of mandibular lateral deformity, it is easily to be misdiagnosed clinically and leads to the treatment failure. This article will elaborate the etiology and clinical features of benign condylar hyperplasia, as well as the diagnostic points and treatment progress, based on the literature and the clinical experience of our research group, to provide evidence-based medical evidence for the standardized clinical treatment of benign condylar hyperplasia. The etiology of benign condylar hypertrophy includes neurotrophic disorders, local circulatory disorders, traumatic injuries (especially condylar injuries that occur in childhood), unilateral mastication, temporomandibular arthritis, endocrine disorders, condylar osteoma, and heredity. Benign condylar hypertrophy is insidious, and occurs most frequently in individuals 10-30 years old, and the course of disease can last for many years. Its clinical characteristics are slow progressive facial asymmetry. Radionuclide bone scans have become the basis for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of and treatment planning for benign condylar hypertrophy. Different treatment plans for active and inactive periods need to be developed, including close observation, proportional condylar resection and orthognathic surgery.

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    Research progress on the application of nanoparticle drug delivery systems in local drug treatment of periodontitis
    ZHANG Xinjian, ZHANG Bin
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2022, 30 (1): 73-76.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.01.013
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    Periodontitis is a common oral disease that represents one of the main causes of tooth loss in adults. In recent years, the application of nanotechnology has provided a new drug delivery system and innovative therapy for the treatment of periodontitis and opens up new prospects for the regeneration of periodontal tissue. The nanoparticle drug delivery system is composed of degradable carrier materials and drugs. Compared with the traditional film, namely, the fragment and strip-shaped periodontal local drug delivery system, the nanoparticle drug delivery system has the characteristics of biopharmaceuticals and pharmacokinetics. Moreover, it has special advantages, including controlled release of drugs, long-term maintenance of drug concentration, biodegradability and biocompatibility, etc. Antibiotics, protein drugs, such as growth factors, and nucleic acids used for gene delivery or mRNA knockout can be absorbed or dissolved in nanoparticles. Liposomes and polymer nanoparticle delivery systems can target bacteria and specific host cells. Inorganic nanoparticles and nanocrystals have good antibacterial activity that can promote periodontal tissue regeneration and play an important role in bone regeneration and bone repair. Dendrimers have internal hydrophobic and external hydrophilic structures and are good drug carriers for periodontitis.

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    CBCT study on the safe location of palatal microscrew implant anchorage nail between maxillary first and second molars
    LI Xinghan, LI Jun, MENG Yitong, TANG Yulong, XU Jialin, YANG Ying, DONG Yinjuan, ZHANG Xiaodong
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2022, 30 (1): 39-44.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.01.007
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    Objective Conebeam CT (CBCT) was used to measure the palatine between the maxillary first and second molars. The proximal and distal palatal widths of the maxillary first and second molar and the palatal mucosal thickness and bone tissue thickness when microscrew implant anchorage nail were implanted at different angles provided a reference for the clinical selection of microscrew implant placement. Methods The image data of 90 adult patients were selected as the research object, and the jaw bone was reconstructed by scanning. In maxillary palatine, selection of distances at 12 mm, 14 mm, 16 mm, and 18 mm from the palatal apex of maxillary first molar between the maxillary first and second molar were used as measurement, measured the proximal and distal palatal widths of maxillary first and second molar and the palatal mucosal thickness and bone tissue thickness when microscrew implant anchorage nails were implanted at 30 °, 45 °, 60 °, and 90 °. SPSS 26.0 software was used for one-way ANOVA and LSD pair comparison. Results The larger the angle of the microscrew implant anchorage nail was, the smaller the proximal and distal medial widths between the maxillary first and second molar, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Compared with the 90° direction, the proximal and distal medial widths of the microscrew implant anchorage nail were larger in the 60° direction. The greater the angle of implantation, the smaller the mucosal thickness and the greater the bone tissue thickness, and the results showed a significant difference (P < 0.001). Compared with the direction of 30° and 45°, the mucosal thickness at the direction of 60° was smaller, and the bone tissue thickness was larger. The higher the position of the microscrew implant anchorage nail, the greater the width of the proximal and distal medial, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Compared with the positions 12 and 14 mm from the palatal tip, the proximal and distal medial widths of the microscrew implant anchorage nail were larger. The higher the implant position was, the greater the mucosal thickness and the smaller the bone tissue thickness. The results showed a significant difference (P < 0.001). Compared with the position of 18 mm from the palatal tip of the maxillary first molar, the mucosal thickness was smaller and the bone tissue thickness was larger. Conclusion It is most appropriate to implant microscrew implant anchorage nail at least 10 mm in length in the direction of 60° at the palatal apex 16 mm from the maxillary first molar in palatine between the first and second molar.

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    Sequential treatment and prognostic factors of traumatic root fracture in permanent anterior teeth
    CHEN Lei, WANG Yingying
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2022, 30 (5): 305-313.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.05.001
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    Root fracture is a kind of dental trauma involving dentin, cementum, pulp tissue, periodontal membrane ligament and even the surrounding alveolar bone. It occurs frequently between the ages of 10-20, mostly in the area of the maxillary anterior teeth with high aesthetic requirements. The treatment goal for root fracture in permanent teeth is to maintain the physiological and functional integrity of the tooth as much as possible and to reduce the incidence of complications. Clinicians usually classify the affected teeth according to the position of the root fracture, including the apical, mid-root, cervical-mid-root and cervical segments, since it determines the treatment plan and the prognosis of the affected teeth. CBCT examination can avoid misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis of root fracture to the greatest extent. The sequential treatment plan of root fracture after permanent anterior tooth trauma includes initial emergency treatment, pulp vitality monitoring and complication management during follow-up. Emergency treatment mainly includes local anesthesia and repositioning, if displaced, the coronal segment of the tooth as soon as possible. Then, after checking its position radiographically, adjustment occlusion and flexible splinting for 4 weeks (4 months for cervical root fracture). The process of root fracture repair includes many tissues and is affected by many clinical factors. Timely and standardized treatment and close follow-up according to the Dental Trauma Guideline guarantee a good prognosis of root fracture. The closer the root fracture line is to the apex, the higher the survival rate is. In addition to the location of the root fracture line, the prognosis is affected by many other clinical factors, such as the displacement of the coronal fragment of the root fracture, the pathological state of the dental pulp, patient age, developmental stage of the root, timely and good replacement of the root fracture, splinting method, and the presence of other dental trauma complications. Pulp vitality should be monitored regularly, and root canal therapy of the coronal segment should be carried out only when infection of the pulp is established. This article reviews the classification, diagnosis, emergency treatment, sequential follow-up treatment, and prognostic assessment of root fracture trauma to provide suggestions for clinicians to manage root fracture trauma in permanent teeth.

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    Research progress on the application of photodynamic therapy in periodontal treatment
    YIN Xin,REN Xiu-yun
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (8): 562-566.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.08.010
    Abstract187)   HTML15)    PDF(pc) (767KB)(162)       Save

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is initiated by bacteria. Pathogens and their virulence factors alter normal cellular metabolic activity and deteriorate periodontal microconditions. Owing to the complexity of tooth structure and the limitation of conventional treatment, we may not live up to all patients’ expectations, especially those with grade C and stage Ⅲ or Ⅳ periodontitis. With the advantages of bactericidal effects, high safety, inhibition of bacterial drug resistance and promotion of tissue healing, photodynamic therapy (PDT) seems to be an ideal technology in periodontal treatment. However, it cannot remove subgingival stones and still cannot replace mechanical treatment to preliminarily control periodontal inflammation. Therefore, near-infrared low-energy light combined with traditional photosensitizers is mostly used in clinical periodontal adjuvant treatment. In periodontal maintenance treatment on a regular basis, a single application can also reduce the sensitivity of patients and effectively control plaque, but its effect will be affected by the degree of periodontal inflammation, the concentration and type of photosensitizer, the energy of the light source, etc. With the further development of material science, the performance of photosensitizers to accelerate oxides and target bacteria will be optimized. In the future, parameters of PDT need to be designed in large-scale studies in accord with different stages and grades of periodontitis.

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    Research on the color stability of Biodentine and MTA within the blood environment
    WANG Yitian,WU Yinlong,YU Fanyuan,WU Fanzi,WANG Chenglin,YE Ling
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (8): 515-522.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.08.002
    Abstract182)   HTML22)    PDF(pc) (2290KB)(137)       Save

    Objective To compare the color stability of Biodentine and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) within the blood environment in vitro and to further investigate the underlying reasons for such color instability. Methods We first generated Biodentine and MTA discs with a diameter of 5 mm and a height of 3 mm. 24 discs of each material were randomly divided into two groups: the deionized water group and the defibrinated sheep blood group. Discs of each group were immersed for 1 day or 7 days before assessments. First, all discs were photographed to directly compare the discoloration of Biodentine and MTA. The color degree of the two materials was tested by a spectrophotometer. Then, the high-resolution morphological characteristics were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Finally, the chemical contents of each element in the material were measured by energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Results Compared to immediately after stripping, a change in the brightness of discs after immersion in defibrinated sheep blood for 1 day was observed only in MTA. On the 7th day after being immersed in blood, the colors of both the Biodentine and MTA discs darkened and turned deep red, but the darkness of the MTA discs increased significantly. The color change of MTA immersed in blood was measured on a spectrophotometer with a greater 7-day ?E (21.257 ± 0.955) than the Biodentine 7-day ?E (5.833 ± 0.501) (t=24.781, P < 0.001). MTA exhibits more discoloration as the immersion time goes on. A significant difference was noted between the 1-day ?E(6.233 ± 0.888) and the 7-day ?E(t=19.956, P < 0.001) of MTA immersed in blood. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the 1-day ?E (6.790 ± 0.831) and the 7-day ?E(t=1.707, P=0.163) of Biodentine immersed in blood. It was observed by scanning electron microscopy that after 7 days of immersion in the defibrinated sheep ablood, the surface porosity of MTA was larger than that of Biodentine, and the crystal edge of MTA became rounded and blunt. The analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that the oxygen content decreased and the bismuth content increased in MTA after immersion in defibrinated sheep blood for 7 days. Zirconium was not detected in Biodentine due to its low radiodensity, but the contents of other elements were stable in Biodentine after immersion in defibrinated sheep blood for 7 days. Conclusion The color stability of Biodentine within the blood environment is better than that of MTA in vitro, which is mainly related to the low surface porosity and stable composition of the anti-radiation agent of Biodentine.

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    Research progress on the relationship between Fusobacterium nucleatum and periodontitis
    SONG Bingqing,REN Biao,CHENG Lei
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (8): 557-561.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.08.009
    Abstract180)   HTML27)    PDF(pc) (776KB)(173)       Save

    Periodontitis is an infectious disease caused by a variety of microorganisms. Fusobacterium nucleatum is closely related to periodontitis with a high detection rate. Fusobacterium nucleatum is able to coaggregate with other microorganisms and attach and invade epithelial cells with the help of adhesins. It can also promote the occurrence and development of periodontal diseases and even systemic diseases by destroying periodontal tissues with virulence factors and metabolites and inducing a host immune response. However, at present, drugs assisting periodontal nonsurgical treatment clinically cannot target specific periodontal pathogens, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, which may lead to problems such as dysbacteriosis or drug resistance. Therefore, studies on the pathogenic mechanism of Fusobacterium nucleatum provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment of periodontitis. The idea is to develop materials, drugs, or probiotics that target adhesins, virulence factors, and metabolites or cut off each pathogenic pathway of Fusobacterium nucleatum to inhibit its proliferation and inflammatory responses in deep periodontal pockets and achieve a balance with other oral microorganisms, and the host is beneficial for the control of periodontitis.

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    Research progress on probiotics for the prevention and treatment of oral and gastrointestinal chemoradiotherapy mucositis
    ZHANG Lin,TANG Yawen,WANG Jiantao,WANG Yan
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (8): 567-571.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.08.011
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    Mucositis is the most common side effect of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. It is an inflammatory disease with an unclear pathogenesis, diverse clinical manifestations and no effective treatment. It often manifests as local mucosal burning and stinging pain in the oral cavity and nausea, vomiting and diarrhea in the gastrointestinal tract. At present, it has been found that local microflora imbalance promotes the occurrence and development of chemoradiotherapy mucositis, and probiotics can be used as an emerging approach to prevent and treat mucositis. This paper reviews the research progress of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of oral and gastrointestinal chemoradiotherapy mucositis, focusing on the influence of microorganisms on the pathogenesis and treatment of gastrointestinal mucositis. Literature review results showed that the occurrence and development of mucositis may be related to changes in the composition and function of local microflora, and probiotics can play a preventive role by regulating local microecology and host immunity. At present, the main probiotics used in the prevention and treatment of mucositis are Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Most clinical trials have confirmed that probiotics have a positive effect in the prevention and treatment of mucositis. However, due to the variety of probiotics and different tumor treatment regimens, prevention and treatment effects may not be observed in some studies. Therefore, the selection of probiotics with high efficacy and safety and the design of the best combination of probiotics and intervention programs are current research hotspots.

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    Dental pulp stem cell-derived apoptotic bodies regulate macrophage polarization and inflammatory response
    GONG Shengkai, YANG Xiaoshan, DOU Geng, LI Zihan, LIU Siying, WANG Wei, LIU Shiyu
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2022, 30 (1): 12-19.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.01.003
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    Objective To investigate the effects of apoptotic bodies (ABs) derived from dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) on macrophage polarization and inflammation response in vivo. Methods Human DPSCs were extracted, cultured and identified. Staurosporine was used to apoptosis induction and differential methods were performed for ABs identification. The in vitro cultured macrophages were divided into 3 groups: solvent control, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the LPS+ABs. The macrophages were stimulated with LPS to induce inflammation followed by ABs treatment. In the untreated group, macrophages were added with an equal amount of solvent. The specific uptake of ABs by macrophages, the expression level of CD206 and the levels of inflammatory cytokines were analyzed. The mouse models of cutaneous wounds and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis were established, and the mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: the PBS-treated group, the DPSCs-treated group, and the ABs-treated group. The mice were injected with the same volume of PBS, DPSCs and ABs, respectively. The body weight, histological pathology, the expression levels of CD206 and cytokines, and the extent of tissue regeneration were measured. Results DPSCs and ABs derived from DPSCs were successfully isolated and characterized. ABs could be taken up by macrophage. While lipopolysaccharide(LPS) induced production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), ABs significantly reduced the levels of these pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased the expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and CD206 (P < 0.01). In the cutaneous inflammatory wound model, the wound closure rate in mice intravenously injected with ABs was significantly accelerated (P < 0.05). The administration of ABs markedly reduced the pro-inflammatory factors levels and increased the CD206+ cell number. In the colitis model, treatment with ABs markedly reduced the loss in bodyweight (P < 0.05), recovered the colon length (P < 0.01), and significantly increased the CD206+ cell number. Conclusion DPSCs-derived ABs could enhance macrophage M2 polarization and attenuate inflammation. Therefore, ABs could be used as a promising cell replacement for inflammatory regulation and tissue regeneration.

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    Prognostic analysis of oral cancer based on deep learning
    TAO Qian, YUAN Zhe
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2022, 30 (2): 77-82.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.02.001
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    TNM(tumor node metastasis)classification is a common way to evaluate the prognosis of patients with oral cancer; however, many years of application have proven this method to be confined merely in clinical and pathological data and it cannot be adapted to the development of modern medicine. Deep learning (DL) has been widely used in various aspects of human life, has advantages for conducting efficient and intelligent searches and can explore and analyze substantial medical information well. Additionally, the application of DL to medical practice is quickly increasing. In the field of oral cancer prognosis, DL can efficiently process and analyze the pathological, radiographic and molecular data of oral cancer patients represented by lymphocytes, gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM) and gene maps and make accurate prognostic judgments accordingly. By assisting physicians in optimizing treatment plans, DL can effectively improve patients’ survival. Although DL lacks sufficient data and practical clinical application in prognostic studies, it has shown good clinical application prospects.

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    Research progress on the structural features, treatments, and association with temporomandibular disorder in patients with skeletal class Ⅲ malocclusion with mandibular deviation
    ZHANG Qinlanhui, LIU Fang, WU Lina, LIU Yang, WANG Jun
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2022, 30 (1): 63-67.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.01.011
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    Skeletal angle class Ⅲ malocclusion with mandibular deviation involves the rotation and translation of the cranial base, maxilla, mandible, and soft tissue. It compromises the patients’ appearance and stomatognathic function. The treatment outcome is not satisfactory, and correct evaluation is of great significance. The causal relationship between skeletal Class Ⅲ with mandibular deviation and TMD remains controversial. This review focuses on the structural alterations of hard and soft tissue, the etiology, the choice of treatment methods, and the association with TMD in patients with skeletal class Ⅲ malocclusion with mandibular deviation. The results show that mandibular deviation is a complex disease with unclear etiology. It involves morphological changes, rotation and displacement of the cranial base, maxilla and mandible, morphological changes of the soft tissue, and occlusal changes, which also compromise the temporomandibular joint and mandibular function. Skeletal Class Ⅲ malocclusion is common in patients with mandibular deviation. Early treatment is needed; however, the treatment methods vary. The correct evaluation of the morphological changes of soft and hard tissues leading to facial asymmetry is the premise of treatment. Orthodontic and orthognathic treatment (combined with soft tissue repair when necessary) is an effective method for the treatment of skeletal class Ⅲ malocclusion with mandibular deviation. In addition, there is a close relationship between mandibular deviation and TMD, which needs to be fully considered in the design of treatment.

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    Effects of graphene on the proliferation, migration and morphology of dental pulp stem cells
    SUN Jingxuan,LI Yanping,PAN Shuang,HE Lina,SUN Xiangyu,ZHANG Shuang,NIU Yumei
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (10): 656-662.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.10.002
    Abstract163)   HTML27)    PDF(pc) (4056KB)(151)       Save

    Objective To investigate the effects of graphene on the proliferation, migration and cell morphology of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Methods Graphene powder was prepared by the oxidation-reduction method, and a 0.5 mg/mL graphene dispersion was prepared. Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize the structure and surface morphology of graphene. DPSCs were isolated and cultured in vitro. MTT assay was used to detect the effects of different concentrations of graphene dispersions (0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 μg/mL) on the proliferation and wound healing assay was used to detected the migration abilities of DPSCs. The effects of graphene on the morphology of DPSCs were observed by immunofluorescence staining. Results In the present study, compared with the control group (0 μg/mL), the proliferation of DPSCs in the 100 μg/mL group was inhibited at 72 h (P < 0.05), and the proliferation of DPSCs in the other groups was not significantly affected (P > 0.05). Graphene dispersions at 10 and 20 μg/mL promoted the migration of DPSCs (P < 0.05). After being cultured in 20 μg/mL graphene dispersions for 3 days, the DPSCs showed a large and orderly cytoskeletal structure, and the spread area of cells was not significantly different from that of the control group (0 μg/mL) (P > 0.05), while some cells had the morphological characteristics of nerve cells. Conclusion Graphene has good biocompatibility and is expected to be a suitable material for tissue engineering within fitting concentration.

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    Oral health management in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia
    TANG Yawen,ZHANG Lin,YANG Xue,ZOU Jing,WANG Yan
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (8): 572-576.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.08.012
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    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common type of leukemia in children. In recent years, the treatment and prognosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children have improved significantly. However, acute lymphoblastic leukemia itself and treatment measures can lead to a variety of adverse oral complications and affect further treatment. These complications have a significant effect on patients and affect further treatment. To improve the quality of life of children, this article reviews the oral health status and oral health management of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia for clinical reference. The literature review shows that the oral health management measures for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia mainly include oral health education, active prevention of oral diseases, timely oral treatment before the start of antitumor treatment, elimination of potential sources of infection after blood examination and risk assessment, treatment of oral mucosal problems during therapy, oral emergency during antitumor therapy should be carried out under the guidance of hematologists and regular oral inspection and oral care. However, current studies have found that there is still a lack of effective prevention and treatment measures for oral mucositis. As a common oral disease in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis remain to be further studied.

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    Research progress on metformin in the prevention and treatment for oral diseases
    WANG Suping, CAI Yingchun
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2022, 30 (3): 221-224.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.03.011
    Abstract161)   HTML13)    PDF(pc) (734KB)(528)       Save

    Metformin is currently the first-line drug for the treatment of diabetes. In addition to its hypoglycemic effect, it has also been found to have other potential effects, such as anti-inflammatory, odontogenic differentiation-promoting, osteogenic differentiation-promoting, and antitumor effects. Previous studies have shown that metformin can promote the healing of periapical lesions, and its mechanism may be related to the promotion of osteogenic differentiation and the induction of dental pulp cell differentiation by activation of adenylate-activated protein kinase by dimethyldiphosphate. Clinical indexes, such as the probing depth, attachment loss level and probing bleeding index, were significantly improved in patients with periodontitis treated with metformin, which may play a role in the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease by promoting the proliferation, migration and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells. Metformin has been proven to inhibit the growth and proliferation of tumor cells and plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of oral tumors such as oral squamous cell carcinoma. At present, research remains in the in vitro and animal experimental stage, and the related mechanism needs to be further explored. Clinical trials remain in the evaluation of clinical indicators, so large-scale, long-term, multicenter, randomized controlled clinical trials need to be further developed.

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    Research progress on 3D printing in minimally invasive endodontics
    LI Yujiao,QIAN Fei,ZHANG Qianxia,WANG Dan,WANG Yirong,TIAN Yu
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (10): 716-720.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.10.012
    Abstract159)   HTML16)    PDF(pc) (790KB)(200)       Save

    Minimally invasive endodontics (MIE) can preserve dental tissue to a greater extent and improve the success rate of endodontics and has thus attracted increasing attention. 3D printing is a technology that is based on a digital model and uses powdered metal, plastic and other materials to construct objects by printing layer by layer. This article reviews the application of 3D printing technology in minimally invasive endodontics to provide a reference for the application of 3D printing technology in clinical minimally invasive endodontics in the future. In recent years, 3D printing technology has been widely used in various professional fields of stomatology, such as maxillofacial surgery, prosthodontics, and orthodontics. Using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and oral scanners to obtain accurate data on the internal and external structures of teeth combined with 3D printing to construct a tooth diagnostic model and pulp opening guide plate, we can accurately locate the position of the root canal and provide a new method for minimally invasive endodontics. At present, 3D printing technology is mainly used to guide the pulp opening pathway, assist in the minimally invasive treatment of malformed teeth and calcified root canals, and assist with apical surgery in the field of minimally invasive endodontics. However, its accuracy and clinical prognosis still need to be verified with a large number of clinical cases.

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    Application of facial-submental artery island flap in reconstruction of oral and maxillofacial defects
    CHEN Weiliang
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2022, 30 (1): 2-11.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.01.002
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    The facial submental artery island flap (FSAIF) is a fasciocutaneous flap supplied by the facial submental artery. It is in close proximity with many oral and maxillofacial regions, and its tex ture and color are similar to those of the head and face. The flap has a constant and sufficient blood supply, and it is easy to prepare and has high survival rates and few complications. According to the tissue carried, FSAIF can be divided into fasciocutaneous flaps, myocutaneous flaps and simple flaps. The flap can also be made into an osteofasciocutaneous (myocutaneous) flap with a mandible to repair maxillary defects. Because this flap is a pedicled flap, it can greatly shorten the operation time, bed rest time and hospitalization time and has been widely used in repairing medium-sized defects of the oral and maxillofacial region. The indications for FSAIF in repairing maxillofacial defects should be strictly controlled. It can be safely used for benign or malignant tumors without cervical lymph node metastasis. For malignant tumors with cervical lymph node metastasis but without extranodal extension, the flap can be used on the premise of thorough neck dissection. The contraindication is cervical lymph node metastasis and extranodal extension of malignant tumors; therefore, other flaps should be selected for repair.

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    Clinical analysis of multi-disciplinary team management in the treatment of giant neurofibroma in maxillofacial and neck region
    LIU Yue,ZHANG Yi,ZHANG Jianguo,ZHANG Long,YAO Lan
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (12): 848-853.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.12.008
    Abstract157)   HTML15)    PDF(pc) (3654KB)(94)       Save

    Objective To investigate the multi-disciplinary team (MDT) management in the treatment of giant neurofibroma in maxillofacial and neck region, to provide reference for clinical practice. Methods Retrospective analysis was conducted on the perioperative whole-process management process of 2 cases of giant neurofibroma in maxillofacial and neck region jointly formulated treatment plan by oral and maxillofacial surgery department with the assistance of the department of anesthesiology, ICU, vascular surgery, thoracic surgery, etc. Results MDT treatment process (anesthesia-embolization-collaborative surgery-ICU-post-operative management) of the two patients was smoothly conducted according to the pre-operative plan. There were no adverse events or accidents that were not predicted by the risk assessment from multiple teams during the operation, and no serious complications occurred after the operation. The post-operative pathological report of both cases was "neurofibroma". Wounds in both patients healed in stage I. The course of treatment was smooth, and the surgical treatment was completed without serious complications. Conclusion MDT management can play a positive role in the diagnosis and treatment of giant maxillofacial and neck neurofibroma so that patients can obtain safer and more effective diagnosis and treatment.

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    Effects of the different materials and thicknesses on endocrown stress distribution
    LIN Jie,LIN Zhenxiang,ZHENG Zhiqiang
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (11): 740-745.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.11.003
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    Objective To analyze the effects of different restorations and the thickness of the occlusal space on the stress distribution of endodontically treated molars with endocrowns. Methods The finite element model of the restoration of the first mandibular molar was created, and four different endocrown materials were used including two resin based ceramics (Lava Ultimate, Vita Enamic), one lithium disilicate ceramic (IPS e.max CAD) and one zirconia ceramics (Cercon), and four kinds of surface space thickness were designed: 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm. A total of 600 N was loaded to simulate the maximum bite force in the vertical and inclined directions, and the finite element software ANSYS 10.0 was used to analyze the stress distribution.Results The vertical loading analysis showed that the crown stress of the 1 mm-Cercon group was the highest at 211.30 MPa, and that of the 4 mm-Lava Ultimate group was the lowest at 11.56 MPa; the highest dentin stress was 38.84 MPa in the 3 mm-Lava Ultimate group, and the lowest was 11.68 MPa in 1 mm-Cercon group. The stress in the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone had little change. The inclined loading analysis showed that the crown stress of the 1 mm-Cercon group was the highest at 78.73 MPa and that of the 1 mm-Lava Ultimate group was the lowest at 35.51 MPa; the highest dentin stress was 41.63 MPa in the 1 mm-Cercon cervical group, and the lowest was 10.81 MPa in the 4 mm-Cercon coronal group. The stress concentration of cement and cervical dentin under inclined loading was higher than that under vertical loading. Conclusion The results of finite element analysis show that the elastic modulus of the endocrown increases, the stress of the crown restoration shows an upward trend, and the stress in the tooth shows a downward trend. With increasing crown thickness, the stress of the crown prosthesis decreased.

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    Progress in evidence-based research on the clinical treatment of infantile hemangioma and vascular malformations
    ZHENG Jiawei, ZHAO Zeliang
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (11): 721-732.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.11.001
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    Hemangiomas and vascular malformations are common clinical diseases. According to their clinical and imaging characterizations, the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) has systematically classified infantile hemangioma and vascular malformations, and the classification has been widely recognized and applied. To date, most vascular malformations involve the following important signaling pathways: PI3K/Akt/mTOR and RAS/MAPK/ERK. This discovery has major impacts on the diagnosis and treatment of vascular malformations including the following: the understanding of the biology of vascular malformations has been increased; the understanding of vascular malformations based on genotype has been refined; and the development of targeted drugs for the treatment of vascular malformations has been promoted. Despite facing many challenges, with the development of gene sequencing, molecular biology and imaging technology, the relevance of vascular malformation classification and the accuracy of diagnosis are improving, and this is accompanied by innovations in surgical treatment and sclerotherapy, interventional embolization, and continuous progress in targeted therapy. At present, investigations on vascular malformations are mostly retrospective clinical studies or low-level clinical trials. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on the treatment of infantile hemangioma, lymphatic malformation, venous malformation and arteriovenous malformation and to review the research progress in evidence-based treatment of infantile hemangioma and vascular malformation.

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    Traditional and modified tunnel technique for the treatment of maxillary anterior teeth gingival recession
    LIAO Yangyang, XIE Chengjie
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2022, 30 (1): 57-62.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.01.010
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    Objective To compare the clinical effect of the tunnel technique (TUN) and vestibular incision subperiosteal tunnel access (VISTA) combining connective tissue grafts (CTGs) on recovering the exposed root surface in a case of gingival recession over the upper anterior teeth and then to provide clinical evidence for gingival recession treatment. Methods A case of gingival recession (Miller I type) over teeth 13-14 and 22-23 was treated using different techniques bilaterally. 22-23 were treated by a TUN combined CTG transplantation,while teeth 13-14 were treated by a VISTA technique combined with CTG transplantation. The gingival retraction height (GRH), gingival retraction width (GRW), keratinized gingival width (KW), root coverage aesthetic score (RES) and visual analog scale (VAS) were measured after operation. Results The effect of post-operation were ideal and complete ginglval recovering were achieved, the postoperative effects of the two methods were stable, GRH and GRW decreased, and KW increased. RES was 10. The VAS score of VISTA combined with CTG transplantation was 6, which was higher than that of TUN+CTG. Conclusion Gingival recession can be treated by TUN+CTG or VISTA+CTG with ideal prognosis. VISTA with an additional incision facilitates the operative procedure but leads to less comfort.

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    Research progress in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis with traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine
    XIAO Ting,TANG Zhangui
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (11): 771-775.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.11.008
    Abstract153)   HTML12)    PDF(pc) (788KB)(185)       Save

    Oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic, occult and progressive potentially malignant disease that seriously affects the oral function and quality of life of patients. The oral burning sensation and limitation of mouth opening are the main reasons for patients to see a doctor. At present, the main treatment for oral submucosal fibrosis is still drug therapy. To provide ideas and references for the clinical treatment of oral submucosal fibrosis, this article reviews the mechanism, therapeutic effect and characteristics of common Chinese and Western medicine in the treatment of oral submucosal fibrosis. The results of the literature review show that salvia miltiorrhiza, aloe, lycopene, curcumin and other traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine are effective in the treatment of oral submucosal fibrosis; in addition, Taohong Siwu Decoction combined with Western medicine and other combinations of traditional Chinese and Western medicine are effective and reduce side effects, and clinicians can choose appropriate drugs according to the patient’s main symptoms and general condition. In the future, researchers can study more combinations of traditional Chinese and Western medicine to treat oral submucosal fibrosis.

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    Expert consensus on the bone augmentation surgery for alveolar bone defects
    ZHANG Fugui, SU Yucheng, QIU Lixin, LAI Hongchang, SONG Yingliang, GONG Ping, WANG Huiming, LIAO Guiqing, MAN Yi, JI Ping
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2022, 30 (4): 229-236.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.04.001
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    Alveolar bone is an important anatomic basis for implant-supported denture restoration, and its different degrees of defects determine the choices of bone augmentation surgeries. Therefore, the reconstruction of alveolar bone defects is an important technology in the clinical practice of implant restoration. However, the final reconstructive effect of bone quality, bone quantity and bone morphology is affected by many factors. Clinicians need to master the standardized diagnosis and treatment principles and methods to improve the treatment effect and achieve the goal of both aesthetic and functional reconstruction of both jaws. Based on the current clinical experience of domestic experts and the relevant academic guidelines of foreign counterparts, this expert consensus systematically and comprehensively summarized the augmentation strategies of alveolar bone defects from two aspects: the classification of alveolar bone defects and the appropriate selection of bone augmentation surgeries. The following consensus are reached: alveolar bone defects can be divided into five types (Ⅰ-0, Ⅰ-Ⅰ, Ⅱ-0, Ⅱ-Ⅰ and Ⅱ-Ⅱ) according to the relationship between alveolar bone defects and the expected position of dental implants. A typeⅠ-0 bone defect is a bone defect on one side of the alveolar bone that does not exceed 50% of the expected implant length, and there is no obvious defect on the other side; guided bone regeneration with simultaneous implant implantation is preferred. Type Ⅰ-Ⅰ bone defects refer to bone defects on both sides of alveolar bone those do not exceed 50% of the expected implant length; the first choice is autologous bone block onlay grafting for bone increments with staged implant placement or transcrestal sinus floor elevation with simultaneous implant implantation. Type Ⅱ-0 bone defects show that the bone defect on one side of alveolar bone exceeds 50% of the expected implant length, and there’s no obvious defect on the other side; autologous bone block onlay grafting (thickness ≤ 4 mm) or alveolar ridge splitting (thickness > 4 mm) is preferred for bone augmentation with staged implant placement. Type Ⅱ-Ⅰ bone defects indicate that the bone plate defect on one side exceeds 50% of the expected implant length and the bone defect on the other side does not exceed 50% of the expected implant length; autologous bone block onlay grafting or tenting techniques is preferred for bone increments with staged implant implantation. Type Ⅱ-Ⅱ bone defects are bone plates on both sides of alveolar bone those exceed 50% of the expected implant length; guided bone regeneration with rigid mesh or maxillary sinus floor elevation or cortical autologous bone tenting is preferred for bone increments with staged implant implantation. This consensus will provide clinical physicians with appropriate augmentation strategies for alveolar bone defects.

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    Anterior aesthetic restoration with ultrathin porcelain veneers on asymmetric faces assisted by a four-dimensional smile design: a case report and literature review
    WANG Hao, ZHANG Xidan, REN Wei, YUE Li, GAN Xueqi
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2022, 30 (1): 51-56.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.01.009
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    Objective To explore the application effect of a four-dimensional smile design as the leading and facial streamline as the reference system in the aesthetic restoration of anterior teeth. Methods A case of scattered space in anterior teeth was treated with a four-dimensional smile design and digital aesthetic restoration with ultrathin porcelain veneer. The digital information of the patients was obtained through oral and facial scanning, and a four-dimensional smile design and prediction were carried out. After the treatment plan was jointly determined by doctors and patients, minimally invasive abutment preparation was carried out, and ultrathin porcelain veneer was made and bonded in place. After the operation, the esthetic degree and marginal fit were observed and reexamined one year after the repair. Results The edges of the ultrathin ceramic veneers were naturally tight, and the color was coordinated, with satisfying pink and white esthetics. The face was more harmonious and natural when smiling. One year after the restoration, the facial aesthetics were wonderful, the abutment teeth and periodontal tissues were healthy, and the patients were satisfied. The results of the literature review showed that the fitting of temporal facial scanning and intraoral scanning data can accurately predict four-dimensional smile aesthetics, simulate the real state of the dynamic smile and pronunciation process, and combine it with facial streamlines to design a natural and coordinated personalized smile for patients with asymmetric faces. However, for patients with occlusal changes, unstable occlusion or temporomandibular joint disorder, it is necessary to add data fitting, such as electronic facial arch and cone beam CT, to more accurately simulate postoperative mandibular movement. Conclusion With a four-dimensional smile design as the leading and facial streamline as the reference system, the whole process digital design assisted the restoration of asymmetric anterior teeth with ultrathin porcelain veneer and had a good effect. The postoperative smiling of patients is harmonious and beautiful, which is in line with the expected effect. Patient participation and satisfaction are high; thus, this method is worthy of clinical promotion.

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    The level of antimicrobial peptides in gingival crevicular fluid and its correlation with periodontal clinical indexes in elderly patients with type 2 diabetic periodontitis
    ZHANG Yameng,ZHANG Huiyuan,RUAN Shihong,CHEN Xiaochun,GAN Xueqi,YU Haiyang
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (11): 746-751.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.11.004
    Abstract151)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (803KB)(151)       Save

    Objective To investigate the changes and significance of human beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2) and LL-37 in the gingival crevicular fluid of patients with periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods This study was conducted among 45- to 85-year-old patients in the Department of Stomatology and Internal Medicine of Shenzhen Center for Chronic Disease Control, including a healthy control group of 22 people, a systemically healthy control group of 19 people with periodontitis, a T2DM periodontal health group of 15 people, and a T2DM group of 21 people with periodontitis. The Florida periodontal probe was used for periodontal examination, and the clinical indexes, including probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and probing on bleeding (BOP), were recorded. The concentrations of HBD-2 and Ll-37 in gingival crevicular fluid were determined by ELISA. The differences in HBD-2, LL-37 and periodontal clinical indexes between the groups were compared, and correlation analysis was conducted.Results The PD values in T2DM with the periodontitis group were higher than those of the systemically healthy controls with periodontitis group (P < 0.05); the levels of HBD-2 and LL-37 in gingival crevicular fluid in systemically healthy controls with periodontitis group were significantly higher than those in the healthy control group (P < 0.05), the level of HBD-2 in gingival crevicular fluid in systemically healthy controls with periodontitis group was significantly higher than that in T2DM with periodontitis group (P < 0.05); and the antimicrobial peptides HBD-2 and LL-37 in gingival crevicular fluid were significantly positively correlated with the PD and CAL in systemically healthy controls with periodontitis group (P < 0.05), and there was no significant correlation between the antimicrobial peptides HBD-2, LL-37 in gingival crevicular fluid and PD, CAL in T2DM with periodontitis group (P > 0.05). Conclusion The levels of antimicrobial peptides HBD-2 and LL-37 in gingival crevicular fluid of middle-aged and elderly patients with T2DM periodontitis were lower, and there was no significant correlation with PD and CAL in periodontal clinical indicators.

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    Research progress on the correlation between interleukin-18 and chronic periodontitis
    SHAN Chao,WANG Tingting,ZHAO Jin
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (7): 485-489.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.07.009
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    Chronic periodontitis is an infectious disease caused by plaque as the initiating factor. Clinically, it manifests as irreversible loss of hard tissue, leading to the destruction of surrounding periodontal tissue, including the deep periodontal pocket, loss of attachment, and finally, tooth loss. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) can promote inflammation and regulate immune function and plays an important role in mediating the host immune response and inflammatory response. An increase in IL-18 in vivo can induce the production of interferon and inflammatory factors, such as interleukin, tumor necrosis factor and matrix metalloproteinase, thus mediating the dual reaction of immunity and inflammation. These inflammatory factors are involved in the occurrence and development of chronic periodontitis. Many clinical studies have shown that the levels of IL-18 in serum, saliva, gingival crevicular fluid and gingival tissue samples of patients with chronic periodontitis may be positively correlated with the severity of periodontitis; however, as a candidate gene, IL-18 is involved in the susceptibility polymorphism of periodontitis. Understanding how to quantify the level of IL-18 in clinical studies and apply it to diagnostic tools and new sites identified by new methods (genome-wide association studies and omics research) will also deepen our understanding of the pathogenesis of IL-18 in chronic periodontitis and provide new ideas for future precision medicine and the formulation of personalized programs. In this paper, the structure, biological function and association between IL-18 and periodontitis are reviewed.

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