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    Sequential treatment and prognostic factors of traumatic root fracture in permanent anterior teeth
    CHEN Lei, WANG Yingying
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2022, 30 (5): 305-313.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.05.001
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    Root fracture is a kind of dental trauma involving dentin, cementum, pulp tissue, periodontal membrane ligament and even the surrounding alveolar bone. It occurs frequently between the ages of 10-20, mostly in the area of the maxillary anterior teeth with high aesthetic requirements. The treatment goal for root fracture in permanent teeth is to maintain the physiological and functional integrity of the tooth as much as possible and to reduce the incidence of complications. Clinicians usually classify the affected teeth according to the position of the root fracture, including the apical, mid-root, cervical-mid-root and cervical segments, since it determines the treatment plan and the prognosis of the affected teeth. CBCT examination can avoid misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis of root fracture to the greatest extent. The sequential treatment plan of root fracture after permanent anterior tooth trauma includes initial emergency treatment, pulp vitality monitoring and complication management during follow-up. Emergency treatment mainly includes local anesthesia and repositioning, if displaced, the coronal segment of the tooth as soon as possible. Then, after checking its position radiographically, adjustment occlusion and flexible splinting for 4 weeks (4 months for cervical root fracture). The process of root fracture repair includes many tissues and is affected by many clinical factors. Timely and standardized treatment and close follow-up according to the Dental Trauma Guideline guarantee a good prognosis of root fracture. The closer the root fracture line is to the apex, the higher the survival rate is. In addition to the location of the root fracture line, the prognosis is affected by many other clinical factors, such as the displacement of the coronal fragment of the root fracture, the pathological state of the dental pulp, patient age, developmental stage of the root, timely and good replacement of the root fracture, splinting method, and the presence of other dental trauma complications. Pulp vitality should be monitored regularly, and root canal therapy of the coronal segment should be carried out only when infection of the pulp is established. This article reviews the classification, diagnosis, emergency treatment, sequential follow-up treatment, and prognostic assessment of root fracture trauma to provide suggestions for clinicians to manage root fracture trauma in permanent teeth.

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    Application of plasmatrix in horizontal bone augmentation for implant placement
    ZHANG Yufeng, WANG Yulan
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2022, 30 (3): 153-159.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.03.001
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    Tooth loss is accompanied by alveolar bone absorption or defect, resulting in insufficient bone and soft tissue. In addition to restoring the masticatory function of missing teeth, implant treatment should also needs to restore the contour and shape of the dental arch. Guided bone regeneration is a common means of bone increase. Xenogeneic granular bone substitute materials are widely used in the field of clinical bone augmentation due to their advantages of long degradation time and low immunogenicity, but other problems, such as inconvenient operation and low osteogenic activity, remain. Plasmatrix can effectively improve the effect of oral tissue regeneration and reduce the occurrence of postoperative complications, and its application in oral tissue regeneration is gradually increasing. This article first introduces the main application forms of plasmatrix in horizontal bone augmentation (mainly solid plasmatrix membrane and plasmatrix bone block), and reclassifies horizontal bone defects according to commonly used decision-making schemes in clinical bone augmentation, in other words, whether the implant can be placed in the ideal position and whether there is bone dehiscence after implantation. Type Ⅰ defects refers to the situation where the bone at the implant site can allow the insertion of an implant with ideal size, and there is no bone dehiscence around the implant, but the alveolar bone contour is not ideal; type Ⅱ defects refers to the situation that when an ideal size implant is placed at the implant site determined by the future prosthesis position, there will be bones on three sides of the implant, but there is bone dehiscence in the buccal bone wall (the length of bone dehiscence is less than 50% of the implant length); type Ⅲ defects refers to the situation where the bone volume at the implant site is not enough to for the placement of the ideal size implant at the ideal position, and bone grafting is required to restore the bone volume before the implant placement. The application of plasmatrix in different types of bone defects is then described. In type Ⅰ bone defects, the solid plasmatrix membrane is used instead of the collagen membrane; in type Ⅱ bone defects, the bone defect around the implant is filled by plasmatrix bone block and then covered with collagen membrane and solid plasmatrix membrane; and in type Ⅲ bone defects, plasmatrix bone block is used to replace autogenous bone block to fill the defect area, and titanium screws are used for fixation. The defect is then covered with a collagen membrane and a solid plasmatrix membrane. This article aims to provide oral clinicians with a comprehensive understanding of plasmatrix and simplify the guidelines for bone regeneration operations.

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    Prognostic analysis of oral cancer based on deep learning
    TAO Qian, YUAN Zhe
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2022, 30 (2): 77-82.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.02.001
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    TNM(tumor node metastasis)classification is a common way to evaluate the prognosis of patients with oral cancer; however, many years of application have proven this method to be confined merely in clinical and pathological data and it cannot be adapted to the development of modern medicine. Deep learning (DL) has been widely used in various aspects of human life, has advantages for conducting efficient and intelligent searches and can explore and analyze substantial medical information well. Additionally, the application of DL to medical practice is quickly increasing. In the field of oral cancer prognosis, DL can efficiently process and analyze the pathological, radiographic and molecular data of oral cancer patients represented by lymphocytes, gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM) and gene maps and make accurate prognostic judgments accordingly. By assisting physicians in optimizing treatment plans, DL can effectively improve patients’ survival. Although DL lacks sufficient data and practical clinical application in prognostic studies, it has shown good clinical application prospects.

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    Application of facial-submental artery island flap in reconstruction of oral and maxillofacial defects
    CHEN Weiliang
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2022, 30 (1): 2-11.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.01.002
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    The facial submental artery island flap (FSAIF) is a fasciocutaneous flap supplied by the facial submental artery. It is in close proximity with many oral and maxillofacial regions, and its tex ture and color are similar to those of the head and face. The flap has a constant and sufficient blood supply, and it is easy to prepare and has high survival rates and few complications. According to the tissue carried, FSAIF can be divided into fasciocutaneous flaps, myocutaneous flaps and simple flaps. The flap can also be made into an osteofasciocutaneous (myocutaneous) flap with a mandible to repair maxillary defects. Because this flap is a pedicled flap, it can greatly shorten the operation time, bed rest time and hospitalization time and has been widely used in repairing medium-sized defects of the oral and maxillofacial region. The indications for FSAIF in repairing maxillofacial defects should be strictly controlled. It can be safely used for benign or malignant tumors without cervical lymph node metastasis. For malignant tumors with cervical lymph node metastasis but without extranodal extension, the flap can be used on the premise of thorough neck dissection. The contraindication is cervical lymph node metastasis and extranodal extension of malignant tumors; therefore, other flaps should be selected for repair.

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    New progress in the pathogenesis of traumatic temporomandibular joint ankylosis
    HU Kaijin, MA Zhen, WANG Yiming, DENG Tiange
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (12): 793-800.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.12.001
    Abstract592)   HTML57)    PDF(pc) (956KB)(202)       Save

    Traumatic temporomandibular joint ankylosis refers to fibrous or bony fusion between the condyle and the glenoid fossa. It can cause problems with mouth-opening limitations, mastication difficulties, obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome. When traumatic temporomandibular joint ankylosis occurs during childhood, it can cause facial asymmetry, micrognathia, and malocclusion, which significantly affect the physical and mental health. Once temporomandibular joint ankylosis occurs, it will be refractory and recurrent. The pathogenesis of temporomandibular joint ankylosis has not been completely elucidated and has always been a research hotspot in the oral and maxillofacial fields. In this paper, worldwide research was conducted, and the pathogenesis of traumatic temporomandibular joint ankylosis was clarified, such as “damage of condyle”,“disc displacement or rupture”,“damage to the glenoid fossa” and “lateral pterygoid muscle distraction”. The relative pathogenesis hypotheses were summarized, such as “hematoma organization” and “lateral pterygoid muscle distraction osteogenesis”. The related pathogenesis of traumatic temporomandibular joint ankylosis was discussed based on the latest cytology and molecular biology research.

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    Progress in evidence-based research on the clinical treatment of infantile hemangioma and vascular malformations
    ZHENG Jiawei, ZHAO Zeliang
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (11): 721-732.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.11.001
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    Hemangiomas and vascular malformations are common clinical diseases. According to their clinical and imaging characterizations, the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) has systematically classified infantile hemangioma and vascular malformations, and the classification has been widely recognized and applied. To date, most vascular malformations involve the following important signaling pathways: PI3K/Akt/mTOR and RAS/MAPK/ERK. This discovery has major impacts on the diagnosis and treatment of vascular malformations including the following: the understanding of the biology of vascular malformations has been increased; the understanding of vascular malformations based on genotype has been refined; and the development of targeted drugs for the treatment of vascular malformations has been promoted. Despite facing many challenges, with the development of gene sequencing, molecular biology and imaging technology, the relevance of vascular malformation classification and the accuracy of diagnosis are improving, and this is accompanied by innovations in surgical treatment and sclerotherapy, interventional embolization, and continuous progress in targeted therapy. At present, investigations on vascular malformations are mostly retrospective clinical studies or low-level clinical trials. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on the treatment of infantile hemangioma, lymphatic malformation, venous malformation and arteriovenous malformation and to review the research progress in evidence-based treatment of infantile hemangioma and vascular malformation.

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    Full-cycle management of endodontic microsurgery
    HUANG Xiangya,CAI Yanling,WEI Xi
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (10): 649-655.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.10.001
    Abstract218)   HTML35)    PDF(pc) (1184KB)(267)       Save

    Contemporary endodontic microsurgery has emerged as a significant treatment modality in the retention of teeth with persistent apical periodontitis. This article proposes the concept of the full-cycle clinical management of endodontic microsurgery based on the condition of the patient and tooth, attempting to develop a comprehensive strategy for the examination, treatment and follow-up to save natural teeth. Full-cycle clinical management included preoperative consideration of the general condition and surgical site and selection of cases for endodontic microsurgery; intraoperative application of techniques such as lasers, "bone window" technique and targeted endodontic microsurgery to make the surgical approaches more varied and the operation minimally invasive; postoperative outcome assessment according to the history, clinical and radiographic examination; and analysis of the short- and long-term outcomes.

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    Re-cognition of chronic obstructive diseases of the parotid gland
    TAO Qian,HUANG Yun
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (9): 577-583.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.09.001
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    Chronic obstructive diseases of the parotid gland are common clinically, with repeated swelling and a prolonged course and poor treatment outcomes. Based on the summarization of clinical practice and related literature, from the viewpoint of etiology, parotid obstructive diseases can be classified as mechanical obstructions, specific obstructions and non-specific obstructions. The principles of fluid mechanics are introduced to explain the formation of parotid obstructions. According to the different causes, the methods of changing the flow pattern of saliva in the parotid to reduce the resistance and relieve the obstruction, are proposed, such as mechanical factors removals, application of drugs that promote saliva secretion and lower saliva viscosity, ductal expansion under endoscopy and stent placement, and embolization of collateral ducts. These managements can effectively increase the salivary flow rate, reduce the occurrence of the saliva stranded and parotid gland obstructions.

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    Research and development concept of barrier membranes based on “ immune microenvironment regulation”
    CHEN Zetao,LIN Yixiong,YANG Jieting,HUANG Baoxin,CHEN Zhuofan
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (8): 505-514.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.08.001
    Abstract805)   HTML38)    PDF(pc) (2033KB)(184)       Save

    Guided bone regeneration technology applied in alveolar bone defect regeneration is based on the barrier function and space maintenance of the barrier membrane. Therefore, traditional development strategies for barrier membranes focus on their physical barrier function, degradation characteristics and biocompatibility to avoid immunogenicity. However, not only does the barrier membrane passively block connective tissue, it is recognized as a “foreign body”that triggers a persistent host immune response, known as a foreign body reaction. The theories of osteoimmunology reveal a close relationship between the immune system and bone system and emphasize the role of immune cells in bone tissue-related pathophysiological processes. Based on these findings, we propose a novel development strategy for barrier membranes based on immune microenvironment regulation: by manipulating mechanical properties, surface properties and physiochemical properties, barrier membranes are endowed with an improved immunomodulation ability, which helps to regulate immune cell reactions to induce a favorable local immune microenvironment, thus coordinating osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis as well as barrier membrane degradation to increase the efficiency of barrier membranes in GBR applications. In this paper, we review the development of barrier membranes and their close relationship to the immune microenvironment concerning bone regeneration and membrane degradation. Additionally, the outcomes of research on barrier membranes based on the regulation of the immune microenvironment have been summarized to improve the osteogenesis efficiency of barrier membranes and solve the problem of the regeneration and repair of bone defects, especially alveolar bone defects.

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    Vital pulp therapy of pulp inflammation of permanent teeth
    WU Buling,LUO Yifei,XU Wenan,TONG Zhongchun
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (7): 433-441.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.07.001
    Abstract141)   HTML28)    PDF(pc) (1842KB)(232)       Save

    Vital pulp therapy aims to maintain healthy pulp tissue as much as possible to improve the long-term survival of teeth. It has limited indications and uncertain curative effects. The pathological changes in inflamed pulp are the histological basis for the determination of treatment strategies and the treatment outcome; however, pulp sensitivity testing cannot reflect the actual histological status of the pulp. With the development of basic and clinical research on vital pulp therapy, the innovation of modern diagnostic and therapeutic technology and capping material, vital pulp therapy can be used as a treatment of teeth on which it was previously thought pulpectomy was necessary. Based on the evidence-based literature, this paper analyzes and summarizes the pathological changes of pulpitis and clinical research on the treatment of pulpitis. Vital pulp therapy can be a treatment for mature teeth with carious exposure and symptoms of irreversible pulpitis if comprehensive applications, including laser Doppler flowmetry, tissue oxygen monitoring, magnetic resonance imaging and microscopy, are used to determine the degree of pulp retention and if infection control and the use of biocompatible capping material are emphasized. In the future, it will be necessary to improve the success rate of vital pulp therapy for the treatment of pulpitis through research on the mechanism of pulp repair and regeneration, the precise diagnosis of pulpitis, and the development of pulp capping materials.

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    Diagnosis and treatment of benign condylar hyperplasia
    WANG Anxun
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (6): 361-367.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.06.001
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    Benign condylar hyperplasia is one of the causes of mandibular lateral deformity, it is easily to be misdiagnosed clinically and leads to the treatment failure. This article will elaborate the etiology and clinical features of benign condylar hyperplasia, as well as the diagnostic points and treatment progress, based on the literature and the clinical experience of our research group, to provide evidence-based medical evidence for the standardized clinical treatment of benign condylar hyperplasia. The etiology of benign condylar hypertrophy includes neurotrophic disorders, local circulatory disorders, traumatic injuries (especially condylar injuries that occur in childhood), unilateral mastication, temporomandibular arthritis, endocrine disorders, condylar osteoma, and heredity. Benign condylar hypertrophy is insidious, and occurs most frequently in individuals 10-30 years old, and the course of disease can last for many years. Its clinical characteristics are slow progressive facial asymmetry. Radionuclide bone scans have become the basis for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of and treatment planning for benign condylar hypertrophy. Different treatment plans for active and inactive periods need to be developed, including close observation, proportional condylar resection and orthognathic surgery.

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    Modern therapeutic strategies for submandibular lithiasis
    TAO Qian,HUANG Yun
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (5): 289-295.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.05.001
    Abstract117)   HTML47)    PDF(pc) (3335KB)(154)       Save

    Most salivary gland stones involve the submandibular gland, which often cause recurrent swelling and pain of the glands after meals, and used to be the main reasons for the gland removals. With the trend of minimally invasive treatment, gland preservation and functional recovery in the diagnosis and the treatment of submandibular lithiasis have been paid more and more attention. New equipment and technologies such as CBCT and sialendoscopy, which are widely used in clinical practice, have contributed a lot to the accurate orientation and minimally invasive treatment of stones, and enriched the managements of submandibular lithiasis. Based on our experience and the review of relevant literature, this paper attempts to summarize the treatment strategies for submandibular stones distributed in different parts of the duct: ① emphasizing on the integrity and functions of the organ; ② endoscopy and minimal invasiveness come first; ③ scientific classifications and personal managements. Appropriate treatment options should be selected according to the features of the stones: endoscopic lithotomy helps a lot in removing those located in the anterior or middle part of the duct; endoscopic lithotomy or/and sialolithotomy are needed according to the features of hilar stones; the regular follow-up is required for the intraglandular stones. Meanwhile, the evaluation of the gland function is also important. After the removals of sunmandibular stones, the functions of the glands should be promoted to restore as far as possible.

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    Etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of oral submucous fibrosis
    JIAN Xinchun,GAO Xing
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (4): 217-225.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.04.001
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    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic disease that produces scars, tissue fibrosis, and precancerous lesions. Epidemiological studies have shown that chewing betel nut is the most significant risk factor for OSF. Many studies have also indicated that habits such as chewing and smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol increase the risk of OSF, which is widely recognized as an oral precancerous lesion or a potentially malignant oral disorder. Pathological characteristics include chronic inflammation, excessive collagen deposition in the connective tissues below the oral mucous epithelium and local inflammation in the lamina propria or deep connective tissues. OSF patients have a 7%~30% chance of developing oral cancer. Submucosal local injection of triamcinolone and tanshinone was mainly used for the treatment of oral submucosal fibrosis. This treatment improves mouth opening and alleviates the burning sensation in OSF, and the treatment efficacy was as high as 93%. The article will discuss the occurrence, development, diagnosis and treatment of oral submucous fibrosis for clinical management by the medical community.

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    Dental implant treatment for patients with chronic kidney disease
    YUAN Quan
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (3): 145-150.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.03.001
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    Chronic kidney disease is a global public health problem threatening human health and affects the function of multiple organ systems. The oral health of patients is often affected as the disease progresses. Dental implants have become the best way to repair tooth loss. It is necessary and challenging to provide safe and reliable dental implant treatment for patients with chronic kidney disease. Dental clinicians should evaluate the health of patients comprehensively, complete blood biochemistry, coagulation function, and imaging examinations, and provide feasible, reliable and personalized treatment plans. During the treatment phase, dental clinicians need to consider prophylactic antibiotics, painless minimally invasive surgery, infection control, and delayed restoration, and they must cooperate with other clinicians in multiple disciplines to reduce risks to provide personalized, safe, and effective oral implant treatment for patients with chronic kidney disease.

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    Detection and significance of immune function in oral mucosa-associated diseases
    WANG Anxun
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (2): 73-80.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.02.001
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    The evaluation of immune function plays an important role in the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of many diseases. To date, immune function detection includes cellular immunity, humoral immunity, and inflammatory markers. In this paper, the application of immune function detection in the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment monitoring of various diseases was discussed; then, the application value of immune function detection in the diagnosis and treatment of three common oral mucosa-related diseases, including recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU), oral lichen planus (OLP), and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), were reviewed combined with the literature and our research. Our research found that RAU patients present abnormal humoral immune function and obvious inflammatory reactions, whereas OLP and OSCC patients present mild inflammatory reactions and more serious abnormal cellular and humoral immune function, so the combined detection of immune function has a certain guiding value for the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. Moreover, in the future, it is necessary to carry out a study on large sample, multicenter and multiindex joint detection to better clarify the role of immune dysfunction in the pathogenesis of various diseases and its mechanism, to establish the corresponding diagnostic model and prognostic prediction model, to find more effective treatment methods.

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    The significance and parameter standards of the implant primary stability
    XU Jing
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (1): 2-10.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.01.001
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    The nature, significance, parameters, influencing factors and testing of implant primary stability were studied by a literature review. Primary stability is a kind of anchorage force at the interface between the implant and bone, and it is merely mechanical. The significance of primary stability is to keep the implant unmovable so that the new bone can grow undisturbed on the surface of the implant without interference from fibrous tissue. The implant is finally bound to the bone by osseointegration. The most common assessments of primary stability are insertion torque (IT), the implant stability quotient (ISQ) of the resonance frequency analysis (RFA) and Periotest. IT is more commonly used to directly imply initial stability. At present, no consensus has been reached regarding the concrete parameters of primary stability to predict osseointegration. Implant osseointegration could be developed through all phases of primary stability. However, the excessive primary stability would cause mini-bone fractures, followed by bone necrosis at the interface and the final failure of implantation. Primary stability is influenced by three factors: implant design, bone condition of alveolar bone, and surgical technique. Under the condition of a lack of primary stability and immediate implantation, there may be the possibility of successful osseointegration. Therefore, it is necessary to re-examine the accuracy of the current elaboration on the primary stability. It is related directly to whether the clinic can choose the appropriate implant treatment path.

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    Location, incidence and clinical implications of the root canal isthmus
    SUN Shuyu,WANG He
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2021, 29 (1): 11-19.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2021.01.002
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    Root canal isthmus(RCI) is defined as a narrow, ribbon-shaped communication between two root canals that contains pulp or tissue derived from pulp. Any root that contains two or more root canals has the potential to contain an isthmus. The incidence of RCI from different tooth positions varies, with the highest RCI incidences usually found in the mesial root of the mandibular first molar and the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary first molar. The presence of RCI increases the difficulty of root canal therapy and introduces uncertainty regarding the prognosis for dental treatment. It is recommended to use CBCT and dental microscopy to identify teeth with suspected RCI in clinical practice. At the same time, for treatment of teeth with RCI, appropriate instruments should be selected, and enhanced root canal irrigation assisted by ultrasound should be considered to improve the success rate of root canal treatment and endodontic root-end surgery. The current technology still has some limitations regarding the cleaning and filling of RCI and additional research and development. Improvement of the corresponding technology and equipment is a current research hotspot and a future research direction.

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    Digital workflow of immediate implant-supported restoration for atrophic edentulous patients
    GU Xinhua
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2020, 28 (12): 749-758.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2020.12.001
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    Rehabilitation and reconstruction of atrophic edentulous predicament represents significant challenges for implant dentists due to the anatomical conditions of the edentulous jaw. Implant-supported fixed complete dental prostheses represent a scientifically and clinically validated treatment for recovering patients, masticatory function and esthetic effect. However, the highly demanding implant surgical techniques and complex rehabilitation procedures for immediate functional reconstruction make it difficult to achieve the desired treatment outcomes. The application of digital and CAD/CAM technology in various stages of the treatment process is logical for patients and dentists. This article summarizes the workflow of digital-assisted implantation with immediate functional reconstruction of atrophic edentulous combined with a clinical case. Digital-assisted diagnosis, design, implantation, immediate reconstruction and final rehabilitation can optimize the implant surgery and immediate rehabilitation workflow, improve the accuracy of implant-supported immediate functional reconstruction, reduce the demand for a large amount of bone graft, and achieve higher patient satisfaction. The “prosthetic-oriented, begin with the end in mind” concept of edentulous jaw implant prosthetics can accurately and efficiently restore the patient,s beauty and chewing function in a minimally invasive manner, and is worthy of clinical promotion.

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    Advances and applications of the maxillary expansion technique
    LIU Conghua,MAO Qin,WANG Chunlin
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2020, 28 (11): 689-697.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2020.11.002
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    Transverse maxillary deficiency is a common malocclusion in the clinic. Palatal expansion techniques are commonly used in the treatment of maxillary transverse deficiency. Traditional palatal expansion techniques have good effects on the treatment of children and adolescents whose palatal suture has not yet closed, but the effects on adult patients are unsatisfied. New palatal expansion techniques, such as miniscrew-assisted rapid palatal expansion and surgical-assisted maxillary expansion, have increased the age-related indications for palatal expansion, and their bone expansion effect has been strengthened. With the development of CAD/CAM technology and 3D printing technology, techniques such as Invisalign and personalized appliances have been developed and have promising application prospects. To provide references for the clinical treatment of maxillary transverse deficiency, palatal expansion techniques are reviewed from the following aspects: mechanism and indications, expansion pattern, traditional and new palatal expansion appliances, stability and retention of palatal expansion, outlook of future expanders, etc.

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    Orthodontic treatment in cleft lip and palate team approach
    ZOU Shujuan,YIN Xing,ZHOU Chenchen
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2020, 28 (11): 681-688.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2020.11.001
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    Orthodontic treatment for dentofacial deformity is fundamental throughout the entire management process of cleft lip and palate. Orthodontist is one of those who are indispensable in the comprehensive multidisciplinary cleft team. Cleft lip and palate patients have unique dentofacial characteristics which makes the treatment goals and strategies different from those of other patients in different stages. For newborns with cleft lip and palate, the main treatment includes presurgical orthopedics. For patients in their primary dentition stage, the treatment mainly focuses on the prevention of bad oral habits and severe malocclusion. For those in their mixed dentition stage, the treatment mainly consists of dentition preparation for alveolar bone grafting and skeletal growth modification. For patients in their permanent dentition stage, treatment strategies include orthodontic camaflouge treatment, combined orthodontic-orthognathic approach and segmental alveolar distraction osteogenesis. In addition to routine orthodontic treatment, orthodontists should pay special attention to managing the compliance of cleft lip and palate patients with unique psychological characteristics. By summarizing the state-of-art cleft lip and palate orthodontic care in the multidisciplinary team, this review aims to involve more orthodontic clinicians to join in the modern biopsychosocial medical practice of cleft lip and palate team approach and to improve the standard of care for cleft lip and palate patients.

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