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The application of distraction osteogenesis in the temporomandibular joint ankylosis and secondary dentofacial deformities
ZHU Song-song, HU Jing
journal1    2016, 24 (1): 6-10.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.01.001
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Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is a joint disorder which refers to bone or fibrous adhesion of the anatomic joint components and the ensuing loss of function. When it occurs in children, it can cause secondary dentofacial deformities with physical and psychological disability. Correction of TMJ ankylosis and secondary deformities remains a great challenge for oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Distraction osteogenesis (DO) has been used for the treatment of TMJ ankylosis and secondary deformities with satisfactory outcomes. An average of 50-60 patients with TMJ ankylosis is referred to our department annually.In this review, we summarized the characteristics of DO and discussed some factors involved in the treatment of TMJ ankylosis with dentofacial deformities.
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Influence of impacted maxillary central incisor on craniofacial structure and its orthodontic treatment
LEI Lang,KE Xiao-jing,LI Hou-xuan,LI Huang,YAN Fu-hua
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2016, 24 (5): 288-292.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.05.006
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Objective To explore the influence of impacted maxillary central incisor on craniofacial structure and its orthodontic treatment. Methods A total of 63 subjects with impacted upper central incisors were selected and categorized into the mixed (n=32) and permanent dentition group (n=31). By using the lateral cephalograms of each subject, 15 angular and 6 linear measurements were made. The cephalometric data were analyzed and compared to data of its corresponding control group with normal occlusion. Results Among the etiological factors of all 63 cases with impacted upper incisors, supernumerary teeth, dentigerous cyst or odontoma, mechanical trauma and idiopathic factors comprise of 6.3%, 6.3%, 12.4% and 73% respectively. Cephalometric analysis demonstrated a more retruded position of "A" point with decreased SNA and ANB angle in incisor impaction group. Dental compensations followed the decreased ANB angle with more proclined upper incisor and more upright lower incisor. In early stage of root development (stage 7 and 8 of Nolla's method), 12 out of 13 incisors were tracted successfully, whereas in late stage( stage 9 and 10), 7 out of 15 incisors were extracted. Conlusions Upper central incisor impaction adversely influences maxillary development. Early orthodontic treatment can improve successful rate and gain a better root morphology.

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Minimally invasive root canal therapy
Bu-ling WU, Ming CHEN
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2017, 25 (2): 69-73.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.02.001
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Minimally invasive root canal therapy should be defined as a discipline which adhere to a concept of preserving the healthy tooth structure as much as possible during all the root canal therapy procedure. In the past 15 years, the concept of minimally invasive has spread and developed fast throughout the diagnosis and treatment of endodontics, which made the root canal therapy (RCT) procedure safer, more accurate and efficient. Minimally invasive endodontics rely on the development of various kinds of therapeutic devices and materials, including the 3D image auxiliary equipment, operation microscope, the NiTi instrument systems and the disinfection and obturation material. Minimally invasive endodontics is a therapeutic concept of the modern root canal therapy which redefined the standard of what a successful RCT is.

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Effective observation of Er: YAG laser for pulpotomy in young permanent incisors
Han QIN,Yong-qing GONG,Hong-zhi XU
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2016, 24 (4): 238-240.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.04.009
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Objective To observe the clinical effect of Er:YAG laser for pulpotomy in young permanent incisors.Methods 40 young permanent incisors with xeposed pulp were divided into 2 groups respectively. Teeth in laser group were treated with mineral trioxide aggregate combined with Er:YAG laser for pulpotomy with teeth in control group were treated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) pulpotomy only. Patients were scheduled for follow-up after 1, 3, 6, 12 months to undergo clinical and radiographic examination.Results 18 of the treated teeth in control group and 19 of the treated teeth in laser group showed no clinical or radiographic signs of failure during the follow-up period. There was no significant difference between the two groups.Conclusion Pulpotomy with Er:YAG laser and direct capping with MTA was a successful and effective treatment for pulp exposure in young permanent incisors.

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Initial stability analysis of the torque-resisted orthodontic miniscrew anchorage
Jian-na ZHANG,Shao-hai CHANG,Yu-shan YE,Ying-juan LU
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2016, 24 (3): 137-141.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.03.002
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Objective To compare the initial stability difference between a new designed torque-resisted orthodontic miniscrew anchorage and commercial miniscrew anchorage by torque tests and resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Methods After predrilled 4 mm?deep holes with a diameter of 1.0 mm, two different miniscrews were implanted into the swine ribs for measurement of maximum insertion torque (MIT), maximum removal torque (MRT) and RFA which was recorded as implant stability quotient (ISQ). Statistical analysis was done for all data by SPSS 13.0. Results The mean value of MIT, MRT, ISQ for new miniscrews were (11.86±1.58) N?cm, (8.45±2.24) N?cm and 61.80±2.9 while for commercial miniscrews were (10.36±1.42) N?cm, (6.76±1.78) N?cm and 58.15±2.98. The differences be-more stable than commercial miniscrews.

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Relationship between the posture of forward head and temporomandibular disorders
Xue-xue LI,Dong-lin ZHANG,Meng-ya WANG
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2016, 24 (2): 118-121.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.02.013
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With the increase of the public concerns about the temporomandibular disorders, the abnormal posture of head had attracted more and more attention. This article will discuss the correlation between the posture of forward head and temporomandibular disordres from several perspectives.

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Castleman disease on neck: clinical report and literature review
Abdumijiti·Renaguzi, Shi-hao LI, Zi-xian HUANG, Ze-man QIN, Zhi-quan HUANG
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2017, 25 (2): 110-114.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.02.009
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Castleman disease is a rare and complicated disease. A case of Castleman disease (CD) in a 40-year-old woman on the neck was reported and literature review was made to understand the occurrence, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of Castleman disease. Because of the rarity of CD, its occurrence in the general population and the typical clinical manifestations are still lacked. There are two types of CD, namely localized CD and multicentric CD, both of them are not easy to be diagnosised. CT scans in preoperative is helpful for the clinical diagnosis, while histopathological examination and lymph node biopsy are beneficial for the early diagnosis. The treatment result is based on the histopathological examination and lymph node biopsy. The prognosis is different with the type of CD. For the localized CD, the prognosis is usually good, while for the multicentric CD is bad. Both of localized CD and multicentric CD have a certain reoccurrence rate.

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The research progress of regenerative endodontic treatment for immature permanent teeth
Guang-tai SONG,Qiu-chen JIN
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2016, 24 (12): 681-687.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.12.001
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The pulpal or periapical diseases of immature permanent teeth often lead to incomplete root development. It is a challenge for us to figure out how to ensure the continuous growth of the teeth and the formation of roots. There are many cases about pulp regeneration reported recently. With the regeneration and differentiation ability of stem cells, which exist in residual pulp tissue, periapical and periodontal tissues, the regeneration of new vital pulp tissue was induced under proper conditions, which is highly vascularized and rich in connective tissue, thus prompting continuous root growth and development, increasing root length, thickening root canal walls, and facilitating the coarctation of the apical foramen. Besides, clinical and radiographic examinations shows successful results about the regenerative treatment, which is of milestone significance. The pulp regeneration treatment is designed to replace the pathological dental pulp tissue with new regenerated pulp tissue, based on biological tissue engineering process. This process includes two key parts: one is pulp revascularization, regenerating new vital pulp tissue in the root canal to achieve the continuous root growth and development; the other is tissue engineering, new pulp dentin complex is regenerated by the stem cells under the induction of suitable biological active scaffolds and growth factors. This article reviews about the research progress and clinical characteristics of aforementioned two key parts.

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The research progress of dental pulp regeneration
Zhong-juan TAN,Yue-ping ZHAO,Yuan-yuan LUO
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2016, 24 (6): 374-377.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.06.014
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Living pulp is crucial for the maintenance of tooth homeostasis. An ideal form should consist of regenerative approaches, which necrotic pulp or diseased tissues are replaced with regenerated pulp tissues, and the tooth converts into vital in the end. With the development of tissue engineering, dental pulp regeneration becomes possible. This review will solve and discuss the problems of dental pulp regeneration from stem cells, scaffolds and growth factors.

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Maxillary sinus floor elevation
Hong-chang LAI,Jun-yu SHI
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2017, 25 (1): 8-12.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.01.002
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Maxillary sinus floor elevation is a common method to increase the bone height in posterior maxilla. Maxillary sinus floor elevation can be divided into 2 types: sinus floor elevation with lateral window approach and sinus floor elevation with trans-alveolar approach. The present article reported the anatomy, antibiotics choice, indications, grafting, growth factors, complications and the influence of tobacco on maxillary sinus floor elevation.

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Effect and molecular mechanism of isorhamnetin extracted from Ginkgo biloba on the differentiation of RAW264.7 cells into osteoclasts
Jing LI, Liang CHENG, Lühua GUO, Tong LI, Moyang YANG, Junmei WANG, Zhe WU
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2018, 26 (3): 158-165.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2018.03.004
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Objective To investigate the effect and potential molecular mechanisms of isorhamnetin (ISO) extracted from Ginkgo biloba on the differentiation of osteoclasts. Methods Osteoclast precursor RAW264.7 cells were induced with RANKL to differentiate into mature osteoclasts. Different concentrations of ISO were added to RAW264.7 cells to determine its effect on osteoclast differentiation. CCK8 was used to evaluate the effect of ISO on cytotoxicity. The impact of ISO on the osteoclast differentiation process was investigated by analyzing tartrate resistance and bone resorption lacuna. Real-time PCR was performed to analyze the levels of differentiation marker genes, including tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (Trap), cathepsin K (Ctsk), and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9); differentiation-related transcription factors, including the proto-oncogene protein c-Fos, nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1(NFATc1); and the levels of downstream NF-κB p65 signaling pathway phosphorylation. Using the above-described method, we verified that ISO exerted an inhibitory effect on osteoclast differentiation and explored related molecular mechanisms. Results Different concentrations of ISO (1-10 μM) had no cytotoxic effects on RAW264.7 cells, inhibited TRAP activity and decreased the number of bone resorption lacuna during osteoclast differentiation. When applied at a concentration of 10 μM, its inhibitory effect was significant. In addition, ISO significantly reduced the expression levels of Trap, Ctsk, MMP-9, c-Fos, NFATc1 and NF-κB p65 mRNA. Conclusion ISO extracted from Ginkgo biloba extract exerted an inhibitory effect on osteoclast differentiation, and the mechanism underlying its activity may involve the inhibition of the classical NF-κB pathway.

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journal1    2016, 24 (1): 49-52.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.01.012
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Effect of different treatment methods of polymeric porcelain surface on its adhesion to metal brackets
Li JI, Zhinong ZHU, Wenwei LIAN, Dongfang LI
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2017, 25 (12): 779-783.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.12.006
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Objective To analyze and discuss the effect of 4 different surface treatment methods on the bonding effect between polymerization porcelain and metal bracket s. Methods 45 polymer-ceramics specimens were made and 40 of them were selected and randomly divided into 5 groups according to different surface treatment methods. A group:surface without special treatment. B group: 9.6% hydrofluoric acid gel combine with bonding agent, C group: 9.6% hydrofluoric acid gel combine with silane, D group: 35% phosphoric acid gel combine with bonding agent, E group: 35% phosphoric acid gel combine with silane. All specimens were stored in water for 24 hours at 37 ℃ after bonding 10 min utes and then cycled 500 cycles (5 ℃ to 55 ℃). To measure the shear bonding strength and record the damage cases and the adhesive remnant index. Results The shear strength values were: 3.24 in the control group, 7.24 MPa in the hydrofluoric acid etching treatment group. 10.78 MPa in the hydrofluoric acid gel combined with silane group. 4.17 MPa in the phosphoric acid-only group, 6.84 MPa in the phosphoric acid gel combined with silane group. The results of each group were statistically different from those of the other four groups (P < 0.001). The rate of breakage after the removal of brackets of the hydrofluoric acid gel combined with silane group is higher than the others. Conclusion As to the high shear bonding strength and low rate of breakage after the removal of brackets, we recommend 35% phosphoric acid etching combining with silane coupling agent in clinical.

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A sampling survey of periodontal health status in 15-74-year-old population in Guangdong province (2015-2016)
Weihua FAN, Jianbo LI, Wanghong ZHAO, Ziqiang LIU, Shaohong HUANG
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2017, 25 (12): 767-773.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.12.004
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Objective To investigate current status of periodontal health in the population at the age of 15-74 in Guangdong province and provide information for oral health care in Guangdong. Methods A stratified multistage randomly sampling design was applied to obtain 4 provincially representative sample groups consisted of 2784 Guangdong residents, aged at 15, 35-44, 55-64 and 65-74 respectively, with a gender ratio of half to half. The status of probing depth (PD) and loss of attachment (LOA) of the whole mouth were assessed according to the Guideline for the fourth National Oral Health Survey by using a CPI probe, and the data obtained were analyzed with SAS9.2 package. Results The prevalence of shallow periodontal pocket in the 15, 35-44, 55-64 and 65-74 years old group were 0.52%, 38.54%, 49.65%, 47.22% with 0.02, 2.05, 3.74, 2.80 affected teeth on average. The corresponding percentages of deep periodontal pocket in the 4 groups were 0.05%, 3.47%, 15.97%, 9.03% with 0, 0.07, 0.31, 0.16 affected teeth on average. Prevalence and the mean affected teeth of 4-5 mm LOA were 0.10%, 26.74%, 33.68%, 35.07% and 0, 1.54, 4.33, 4.05. The prevalence and the mean affected teeth of 6-8 mm LOA were 0, 6.94%, 32.29%, 27.08% and 0, 0.24, 1.23, 0.97. The prevalence of LOA≥4 mm were 0.10%, 35.07%, 79.17%, 74.65% and the prevalence of LOA≥6 mm were 0, 8.33%, 45.49%, 39.58%. In the 35-74 years old group, the prevalence and the mean teeth with PD and LOA increased with age and reached a peak in 55-64 years old group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the prevalence and the mean teeth of PD and LOA between urban and rural areas. The mean teeth of PD in 35-44 and 55-64 years old groups were significant higher in the male than the female. The prevalence and the mean teeth with LOA were both significant higher in the male than the female. Conclusion The periodontal diseases indications are common in 35-74 years old people and most necessary at the age of 55-64 in Guangdong. The periodontal health may have extensive influence on oral health status in the middle-aged and the elder population in Guangdong.

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Research progress on the bonding strength of primary teeth after Er, Cr: YSGG laser irradiation
Yun LIANG, Ke CHEN
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2017, 25 (3): 196-199.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.03.012
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With many advantages such as safety, effective cutting of enamel and dentin, Er, Cr: YSGG laser has gained more and more attention in recent years. After irradiation, the morphology, composition, and structure of tooth surface has changed, yet, the effect of these alterations to the bonding strength of the subsequent material is controversial. The paper has made a review from the following four aspects: Mechanism for tooth hard tissue cutting with Er, Cr: YSGG laser; The structure characteristics of primary teeth; The enamel bonding strength of primary teeth after Er, Cr: YSGG laser treatment; Safety, superiority and expectation for the application of Er, Cr: YSGG laser in primary teeth.

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Detection of sTREM-1 levels in gingival crevicular fluid of peri-implantitis
Dechun ZHENG, Dong WU
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2017, 25 (12): 784-787.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.12.007
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Objective To investigate the relationship between the level of the soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell (sTREM-1) in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of individuals and peri-implantitis. Methods 46 patients (75 implants) with different severities of peri-implantitis and 18 patients (75 implants) without peri-implantitis were selected in this study. The concentrations of sTREM-1 in GCF with different types of peri-implantitis were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The peri-implantitis peroxidase depth (PPD), the distance from the shoulder of the implant to the bottom of the bony defect (DSB), the modified sulcus bleeding index (mSBI) and the modified plaque index (mPLI) were recorded. The correlation between PPD, DSB, mSBI, mPLI and sTREM-1 was analyzed. Results The concentrations of sTREM-1 in GCF in mild, moderate and severe peri-implantitis group were significantly higher than those in healthy group (P < 0.05). The concentrations of sTREM-1 in GCF in severe peri-implantitis group were significantly higher than those in mild and moderate group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the concentration of sTREM-1 in GCF between mild peri-implantitis group and moderate group (P > 0.05). In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between the concentration of sTREM-1 and PPD, DSB, mSBI, mPLI. Conclusions The concentration of sTREM-1 in GCF is closely related to the severity of tissue inflammation around implant.

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Study on the consistency of the position of the brackets on the digital occlusal model and the actual position af-ter indirect bonding
Xian-feng WAN, Hui-ling WANG, Zhen-huan LIU, Jin-cai ZHANG, Pei-jia DUAN, Li-na BAO
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2017, 25 (5): 311-315.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.05.007
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Objective To provide the experimental basis for the coherence of the indirect bond position by comparing the position of the bracket on the digital occlusal model and the position of the transfer to the initial plaster model. Methods Fifteen digitized models were selected for the brackets on the dental denture model, the brackets were transferred to the initial plaster model by indirect bond transfer trays, The line distance between each bracket position in digital dental model and initial plaster model was measured with OrthoRx software. Results The difference between the position of the orthodontic brackets and the position of the initial plaster model was less than 0.20 mm, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion The position of the bracket on the digital occlusal model is consistent with that of the original plaster model, which provides a theoretical basis for digital indirect bonding.

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Protective effect of baicalin on oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of gingival epithelial cells
Shu-fan ZHAO,Ying-qiu CUI
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2016, 24 (12): 701-704.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.12.004
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Objective To study the protective effect of baicalin on oxidative stress- induced gingival epithelial cell apoptosisand its mechanism. Methods H2O2 was employed to form the oxidative stress-induced gingival epithelial cells apoptotic model, with the intervention of baicalin. The cell proliferation rate, cell apoptosis level, the protein expression of protein kinase B (Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase3β (GSK3β) were investigated respectively. Results Baicalin could effectively alleviate oxidative stress-induced inhibition of gingival epithelial cell proliferation and alleviate apoptosis; and it could promote the phosphorylation of Akt-GSK3β signaling pathway. Conclusion Baicalin has a significant protective effect on oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of gingival epithelial cells, which may be related to the regulation of Akt-GSK3β signal pathway.

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Research progress in photocatalysis of titanium dioxide nanowire
Yan GAO, Ying LIU, Lei ZHOU, Shulan XU
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2018, 26 (3): 200-204.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2018.03.012
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Because nanoparticles have particular characteristics, such as small size and surface effects, nano-TiO2 is widely used in air purification, wastewater treatment and self-cleaning. In recent years, TiO2 photocatalysis has thoroughly explored as a new titanium implant surface treatment method. Photocatalytic performance is better for TiO2 nanowires than for nano-TiO2 particles. Hence, these nanowires have received widespread attention with regard for their more specific surface area and surface energy, improved charge carrier transport efficiency, and enhanced charge collection efficiency. Photon-generated carrier transport moves in a one dimensional straight path along a nanowire, and this could decrease photoelectron loss. In this paper, we summarized the principles underlying, factors that influence, and applications involving TiO2 nanowire photocatalysis. Additionally, we describe its method of preparation and toxicity.

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Effects of osteoprotegerin on implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats
LIU Xian-wen,ZHANG Chao,LIU Shu-guang,AI Wei-jian,ZHOU Hui-xi,LI Yun-fen
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2016, 24 (11): 634-639.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.11.003
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Objective To investigate the role of osteoprotegerin (OPG) in implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats.Methods 12 weeks after bilateral ovariectomy, each rat accepted 2 titanium screws in the proximal tibiae. All animals were then randomly divided into 2 groups: control (10 rats) and OPG group (10 rats). Subcutaneous injection of OPG (10 mg/kg) or vehicle was performed 3 times a week. 8 weeks later, tibiae with screws were harvested for μCT, histological and biomechanical analysis.Results Compared to control, OPG increased the percent bone volume by 124%, the percent osseointegration by 167%, the mean trabecular number by 111%, the mean trabecular thickness by 92%, the mean connective density by 95%; and decreased the mean trabecular separation by 64% in μCT analysis. OPG also increased bone area density by 160% and bone-to-implant contact by 234% in histomorphometric evaluation, and increased the maximal push-out force by 228% in biomechanical test.Conclusion Systemic administration of OPG can improve implant osseointegration and fixation in ovariectomized rats, resulting from the increased peri-implant bone mass and improved trabecular microarchitecture.

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Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2016, 24 (3): 190-192.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.03.016
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Procedure refinement, easy operation--root canal treatment progress
Ming-wen FAN
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2016, 24 (3): 133-136.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.03.001
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Over the past ten years, with the progress of science and technology and improvement of equipment, the root canal treatment level has been promoted rapidly, and the root canal treatment effect has realized qualitative improvement. The 3 elements for the success of the root canal therapy which were the understanding of the root canal, sufficient preparation, close obturation were summarized and analyzed in this paper.

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Application of All-on-Four technology in the field of dental implants
Lei ZHOU,Xin-xin YUE
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2017, 25 (1): 1-7.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.01.001
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Dental implant restoration is an effective way to restore the chewing and aesthetic function for edentulous. However, dental implant restoration is facing great challenges of the lack of available bone, the maxillary sinus or inferior alveolar nerve vascular bundle, which is often necessary to carry out the related bone augmentation operation. All-on-Four technique is to use four implants in the anterior part of complete edentulous jaws, the two most anterior implants are placed axially whereas the two posterior implants are placed distally angled, to support a provisional, fixed, and immediately loaded prosthesis. The technique avoids the artificial bone substitutes implantation and maxillary sinus augmentation or other bone augmentation surgery. Besides, it could alleviate patients' psychological reaction, postoperative reaction, as well as time and money costs. It is considered a feasible treatment method to combine the application of the oblique implant and the axial implant in the treatment of the edentulous patients. This paper will elaborate on the concept of All-on-Four, the conventional technology, the evaluation research and some new viewpoints.

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Research progress in influence of periodontal disease on dental implantation
Yuhong XIA, Huimin YU, Di ZHANG, Chunxian WANG
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2018, 26 (2): 120-123.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2018.02.011
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Dental implantation is a popular way to replace natural teeth. Its prognosis is affected by a number of factors including periodontitis. A large number of studies have shown the incidence of peri-implant disease and implant failure rate in periodontal compromised patients are higher than periodontal healthy patients. Peri-implant disease is closely related to the pathogens in periodontitis. What's more, the long-term success of dental implants is affected by multiple risk factors of periodontitis such as regular oral hygiene maintenance and smoking. This paper reviews the survival rate, the pathogens and the prognosis of implants in periodontal compromised patients.

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New treatment modality for pulpititis and apical periodontitis: pathway of regenerative endodontics
Mao-bin YANG, Qian ZENG
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2017, 25 (2): 74-79.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.02.002
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Tissue engineering has been applied to induce pulp-dentin complex regeneration, and proposed the concept of regenerative endodontics. As a new subject in stomatology, regenerative endodontics promotes root development and pulp regeneration with the combination of dental stem cells, biomaterial scaffolds and growth factors. Clinically, pulp regenerative technique has been used to treat necrosis and periapical periodontitis of immature permanent teeth. Numerous case reports and studies have proved the possibility of pulp regeneration, and regenerative endodontics will become a potential new treatment alternative of dental pulp diseases for dental clinician. In the present paper, we will summarize and analyze the current process and prospective of regenerative endodontics.

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Influence of shRNA silent LASP-1 on cell proliferation and migration of tongue squamous cell carcinoma
Li-na YU,Wen-xuan ZHANG,Yang YU,Wen-guang QIN,Xue-qi GUO
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2016, 24 (6): 336-340.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.06.004
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Objective To investigate the expression of LASP-1 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma, and to study the influence of shRNA silent LASP-1 on cell proliferation and migration of tongue squamous cell carcinoma.Methods Green fluorescence shRNA targeting LASP-1 was constructed and transfected into SCC9 cells by lipofectamine. Cell proliferation was detected by MTT method. LASP-1 mRNA and protein were determined by RT-PCR and western blot respectively. The migration ability of cells was detected by transwell assay.Results There was green fluorescence expression in experimental and negative control group cells after transfecting shRNA and shNC respectively. LASP-1 mRNA and protein were decrease in experimental group cells. It indicated that LASP-1 shRNA was transfected successfully. By contrast with control group, the cell viability of experimental group cells reduced by (51.23 ± 1.47)% and (50.07 ± 2.11)% after 48 h and 72 h respectively. The results of transwell assay showed that migration ability of SCC9 cells was decreased significantly after shRNA targeting LASP-1 was successful transfected. It decreased by 43% compared with control group.Conclusion LASP-1 has high expression in tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells, down regulated LASP-1 gene expression can inhibit the proliferation and migration of SCC9 cells.

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Effects of inflammatory microenvironment mediated by macrophage on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells
Xiumei ZHENG, Wenxia HUANG
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2018, 26 (5): 297-303.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2018.05.004
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Objective The present study investigated the effects of the inflammatory microenvironment mediated by macrophages on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs). Methods Conditioned medium containing inflammatory factors was collected following macrophage activation with 1 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS). PDLCs were isolated from healthy teeth and cultured in conditioned medium (LPS-CM group) or normal medium (control group), and the proliferation of PDLCs was detected using the MTT assay. The cells were cocultured with an osteogenic inducer for 3 d and 7 d, and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of PDLCs was detected using an ALP kit. The mRNA expression levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osteocalcin (OCN), and collagen I (COL-I) were detected using real-time PCR, and the protein levels of RUNX2, OCN, and COL-I were detected using Western blotting. Mineralization nodules were observed using Alizarin red staining after osteoinduction for 14 d. Results The OD value of PDLCs in the LPS-CM group was lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of RUNX2, OCN, and COL-I in the LPS-CM group were lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). In addition to the OCN 3 d group (t = 2.75, P = 0.056), the protein expression of RUNX2, OCN, and COL-I in the LPS-CM group was lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05). However, the ALP activity of the LPS-CM group was higher than that of the control group, which was 1.58-fold greater (t = 5.91, P = 0.030) at 3 d and 1.29-fold greater (t = 6.01, P = 0.046) at 7 d. The number of calcified nodules in the LPS-CM group was significantly less than that in the control group (t = 8.63, P = 0.048). Conclusion The inflammatory microenvironment mediated by macrophages may inhibit the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of PDLCs.

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The influence of the air abrasion on the resin filling microtensile bond strength of deciduous tooth
YAN Zhi-qi,YE Mei,YAN Xue-min
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2016, 24 (5): 280-282.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.05.004
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Objective To investigate the influence of the air abrasion on the resin filling microtensile bond strength of deciduous tooth. Methods 24 primary molars were randomly divided into 2 groups. Crown enamel was removed to expose dentin. Superficial occlusal dentin were prepared by air abrasion or high-speed dental bur. Two samples were selected from each group. One of them was directly observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the other was observed by SEM after etching. The rest of samples were restored with the composite resin. Microtensile test was used to examine the microtensile bond strength. Results The microtensile bond strength of air abrasion group was (24.470±3.194) Mpa, which was statistically higher than that of high-speed dental bur group (22.294±2.268) Mpa (P<0.05). The tooth prepared by air abrasion with etching showed the characteristic of "honeycomb" pattern in SEM micrograghs, while the tooth in the control group showed a shallow shape. Conclusion Air abrasion preparation can improve the microtensile bond strength in dentin restorations with the composite resin.

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Clinical effect of microscopic periapical surgery combined with MTA apical filling in treatment of chronic apical periodontitis
De-cheng RUAN, Min MA
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2017, 25 (3): 180-182.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.03.008
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Objective To observe the clinical effect of microscopic periapical surgery combined with (mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apical filling in treatment of chronic apical periodontitis. Methods A total of 64 patients with 91 teeth of chronic apical periodontitis, which couldn't be treated with root canal treatment, were selected and randomly assigned into two groups. 32 patients with 43 teeth in the control group were treated with traditional surgery combined with amalgam filling. 32 patients with 48 teeth in the experimental group were treated with microsurgical apical surgery combined with MTA apical filling. Patients were followed for 12 months. The healing of periapical lesionwere assessed by clinical symptoms and X-ray examination every three months. Results In the experimental group, 27 cases cured, 17 cases improved, the success rate was 91.67% (44/48). In the control group, 19 cases cured, 12 cases improved, the success rate was 72.09% (31/43). The success rate in experimental group was significantly higher than the control group (χ2 = 5.997, P = 0.014). Conclusion Effect of microscopic periapical surgerycombined with MTA apical filling in treatment of chronic periapical periodontitis is satifactory.

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Clinical and pathological analysis of parotid gland tumor in adolescent: report of 31 cases
Xiao-ping WU,Da-ming ZHANG,Wei-liang CHEN
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2016, 24 (2): 108-110.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.02.010
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Objective To investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics of the parotid gland tumor in adolescent for providing clinical evidence for its treatment. Methods The clinical and pathological data of 31 adolescents(10-19 years old) from Jan. 2003 to Dec. 2011 were retrospectively studied and compared with 516 adult cases at the same time. Results 38.7%(12/31) of the parotid gland tumors in adolescent were malignant, but only 17%(88/516) in adults. Among the 31 cases, 19 cases were benign tumor(61.3%), 12 cases were malignant tumor(38.7%). Among the benign cases, pleomorphic adenoma was the most common diseases, which accounted for 89.5%(17/19). Mucoepidermoid carcinoma(5/12) was the most common malignancy. All of the 31 cases were treated surgically, and 2 malignant cases were treated combined with postoperative radiotherapy. Conclusion The clinical and pathological features of parotid gland tumors in adolescent are different from those in adults, and more attention should be paid to this phenomenon. Operative treatment is the preferred treatment of parotid gland tumor in adolescent, which should be early and thorough. Thus far, there is great dispute on postoperative radiotherapy.

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The effects of two different patterns on the precision of zirconia all-ceramic crowns
Juan ZHANG, Dongjian LI, Jie JIANG, Yan SITU, Shuangshuang ZOU, Xingtao. WEN
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2018, 26 (4): 245-249.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2018.04.009
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Objective The objective of this study was to compare the early clinical effects of zirconia all-ceramic crowns using two different impression methods. Zirconia ceramic crowns were produced using digital models based on either a silicone rubber impression perfusion model in vitro or a 3D mouth scanner. A total of 50 patients with a planned restoration of the first permanent molar with zirconia all-ceramic crowns after root canal therapy were selected and randomly divided into two groups: a digital impression by intraoral 3D scanning group and a digital impression by extraoral scanning after silicone rubber impression group. Zirconia all-ceramic crowns were created by CAD/CAM in both groups. Marginal adaptation, proximal contact, and occlusal contact were compared between groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups in marginal adaptation (P > 0.05). For proximal contact and occlusal contact, no significant differences regarding the number of cases for the criteria of level A and level B were found between two groups (P > 0.05), while the misfit value in level B was smaller in the first group than in the second group (P < 0.05). Zirconia all-ceramic crowns with intraoral 3D scanning show excellent early clinical performance.

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The prevelance and risk factors analysis of root caries among 513 elderly in Guangzhou City
LIN Shan, WU Bu-ling, LU Xiao
Journal of Prevention and Treatment For Stomatological Diseases    0, (): 241-243.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.04.009
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Objective To explore the prevalence and risk factors of root caries among the elderly in Guangzhou city in order to provide reference information for the prevention of root caries in the elderly. Methods Cross-sectional study was carried out in 513 people aged 65-74 years who were studying at the University for the elderly. Oral examination was taken by a trained and standardized dentist, the root caries index and other clinical variables were recorded. Questionnaires were administered to collect socioeconomic, sociodemographic and oral hygiene data. Statistical analyses were performed using parametric tests. Results The prevalence of root caries was 65.7%. The mean DFT was 2.19±1.92. The prevalence and the mean DFT of men were 68.8% and 2.34±2.01, while 62.7% and 1.98±1.75 for women. The prevalence of root caries showed no significant difference between genders (P=0.147), the mean DFT showed significant difference between genders (P<0.001). Statistically differences of the caries prevalence were observed across food impaction (P=0.016), and were higher in dry mouth (P<0.001). Those who were with dry mouth and/or with food impaction had more root caries. Conclusion Strengthening the oral health education and forming a good oral health behavior are helpful to prevent the elderly root caries.
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The influence of the impacted mandibular third molar extraction on the distal periodontal tissue of the mandibular second molar
XU Jing
journal1    2016, 24 (1): 11-14.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.01.002
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The periodontal bone defect might be formed on the distal surface of the second molar root followed the extraction of the mandibular third molar. The occurrence and prognosis of the complication would be influenced by the age of extraction, the impaction level of the third molar, local inflammation, health state of adjacent tooth, etc. The periodontal bone defect of the second molar would be severer and had poorer prognosis in the case of extraction for the older patients, deeper impaction of the third molar, local inflammation, food impaction, adjacent tooth caries. From the prophylactics, it was beneficial for the prevention of the complication or reducing severity of the complication when the extraction of lower third molar was performed before the age of 25 years old. The periodontal bone defect could be effectively repaired by transplanting bone graft.
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Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2016, 24 (5): 314-316.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.05.012
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Progress in diagnosis and treatment of chronic recurrent parotitis
WANG Song-ling,WANG Jiang-yi
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2016, 24 (11): 621-626.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.11.001
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Chronic recurrent parotitis (CRP) is a non-obstructive parotid inflammation in young children or adults, generally associated with recurrent and intermittent swelling of parotid gland, while children are more susceptible. The etiology of this disease is not clear, clinical manifestations are similar to other diseases, and the effective prevention and control measures are lack currently. This paper reviewed the research progress of the etiology of CRP in recent years, and summarized the role of sialography, ultrasonography and sialoendoscopy in diagnosis and treatment, and summarized the main points of diagnosis and differential diagnosis of CRP in children and adults. The relationship and identification of two kinds of CRP and clinically confusing Sjǒgren's syndrome were analyzed.

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Application of probiotics for dental caries prevention in children
LI Chun,LI Yan-hong,LIU Juan
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2016, 24 (9): 558-560.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.09.013
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Based on the ecological theory, dental caries is a bacterial disease resulted from the imbalance of oral commensal microorganisms and it needs ecological methods to control. Due to its ability of regulating oral micro-ecological balance, bacteriotherapy has been regarded as a potential method to prevent dental caries, especially for children. The purpose of this review is to summarize the currently available data on probiotics of caries prevention in children.

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Clinical effect evaluation of the application of Er:YAG laser to peri-implantitis
LI Feng-zhou,XUE Fan
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2016, 24 (5): 303-305.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.05.009
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Objective To compare the effectiveness of an Er:YAG laser and mechanical debridement for the treatment of peri-implantitis. Methods 22 cases of peri-implantitis patients were divided into 2 groups according to the single blind randomized control principle. The experimental group was treated by Er:YAG laser irradiation, the laser energy was set to 100 mJ/pulse, frequency of 10 Hz; plastic curette and 0.2% chlorhexidine antimicrobial therapy was used in the control group. Clinical periodontal index test including plaque index, bleeding index, probing depth and clinical attachment level was conducted at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Results At baseline, the difference of clinical periodontal index between the experimental group and the control group had no statistical significance (P>0.05). After 3 months of treatment (P<0.01) and 6 months (P<0.05), bleeding index, plaque index of test group and control group had significant difference. Probing depth was reduced by 3 and 6 months after treatment in both 2 groups, and the probing depth had significant difference (P<0.05); while clinical attachment level value showed no statistical significance between the two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion The research shows that the Er:YAG laser treatment can significantly improve peri implant inflammation level, effectiveness of peri-implantitis control is superior than the mechanical curettage treatment.

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Clinical observation of medical collagen sponge in the prevention of postoperative complications after extracting mandibular impacted teeth
LI Guo-yue,ZHANG Yao,XIA Deng-sheng
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2016, 24 (9): 545-548.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.09.010
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Objective To study the clinical effect of medical collagen sponge in the prevention of postoperative complications after extracting mandibular impacted teeth.Methods 100 cases bilateral extraction of mandibular third molar were required as the objects of the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. In test group medical collagen sponge was implanted after tooth extraction, while the control group extraction did not put in any drug. The tooth socket was examined in 30 min and 7 d respectively.Results Low incidence of bleeding, swelling, limitation of mouth opening and dry socket occurred in the test group, which is statistically significant with the control group (P < 0.05).Conclusion Medical collagen sponge can reduce the incidence of postoperative complications of impacted mandibular third molar extraction.

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Consideration of indications for endodontic microsurgery
ZENG Xiongqun,XU Shuaimei
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2019, 27 (10): 613-620.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2019.10.001
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Posttreatment disease is a difficult clinical problem. Periradicular surgery is an important and effective method for cases that cannot be resolved by root canal therapy. In recent years, with the application of microscope for oral surgery and the development of microsurgical instruments, microsurgery in endodontics has reduced treatment trauma compared to traditional periradicular surgery and further improved the success rate of clinical treatment. However, as an invasive surgical method, the indications and timing of microsurgery in endodontics should be strictly defined for clinical applications. This paper reviews the literature on this important issue and discusses it with regard to the clinical experience of the author′s team. Explaining the effective root canal retreatment and good coronary closure are the primary considerations when posttreatment disease occurs. When root canal retreatment fails or cannot be completed after the initial treatment, the anatomical factors, lesion extent and periodontal lesion combination should be fully considered, and the microsurgery treatment strategy should be carefully formulated.

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Cone-beam computed tomography study of condyle position in high-angle adult female patients with different sagittal skeletal malocclusion
Tao CUI, Yuqing DU, Yu SONG, Zhitao SUN, Fengchun HOU, Yanling YU
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases    2018, 26 (3): 180-183.   DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2018.03.008
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Objective To measure and compare condyle-related indexes(volume, surface area, anterior space, upper space and posterior space) in adult female patients with different sagittal malocclusions with the aim of providing a reference for clinical treatment. Methods The CBCT database of Qingdao Stomatology Hospital was searched to identify patients with high-angle adult skeletal malformations with the following classifications: classⅠ(n=30), class Ⅱ(n=30), and class Ⅲ(n=30). The CBCT images associated with the sample population were stored according to DICOM3.0 medical digital image communication standards. Mimics10.01 software was used to read and prepare three-dimensional reconstructions of the condylar, and the above-listed indicators were measured and statistically analyzed. Results There were no significant differences between the right and left sides among the three groups (P > 0.05). For parameters including condylar anterior joint space and post-joint space, the differences among the three groups were significant (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in parameters related to condylar articular space between classⅠand class Ⅱ(P > 0.05). The differences between skeletal classesⅠand Ⅲ and between skeletal ClassesⅡ, and Ⅲ were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion Condylar position varies among high-angle adult woman with skeletal malocclusions with different sagittal skeletal patterns.

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