Objective To investigate current status of periodontal health in the population at the age of 15-74 in Guangdong province and provide information for oral health care in Guangdong. Methods A stratified multistage randomly sampling design was applied to obtain 4 provincially representative sample groups consisted of 2784 Guangdong residents, aged at 15, 35-44, 55-64 and 65-74 respectively, with a gender ratio of half to half. The status of probing depth (PD) and loss of attachment (LOA) of the whole mouth were assessed according to the Guideline for the fourth National Oral Health Survey by using a CPI probe, and the data obtained were analyzed with SAS9.2 package. Results The prevalence of shallow periodontal pocket in the 15, 35-44, 55-64 and 65-74 years old group were 0.52%, 38.54%, 49.65%, 47.22% with 0.02, 2.05, 3.74, 2.80 affected teeth on average. The corresponding percentages of deep periodontal pocket in the 4 groups were 0.05%, 3.47%, 15.97%, 9.03% with 0, 0.07, 0.31, 0.16 affected teeth on average. Prevalence and the mean affected teeth of 4-5 mm LOA were 0.10%, 26.74%, 33.68%, 35.07% and 0, 1.54, 4.33, 4.05. The prevalence and the mean affected teeth of 6-8 mm LOA were 0, 6.94%, 32.29%, 27.08% and 0, 0.24, 1.23, 0.97. The prevalence of LOA≥4 mm were 0.10%, 35.07%, 79.17%, 74.65% and the prevalence of LOA≥6 mm were 0, 8.33%, 45.49%, 39.58%. In the 35-74 years old group, the prevalence and the mean teeth with PD and LOA increased with age and reached a peak in 55-64 years old group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the prevalence and the mean teeth of PD and LOA between urban and rural areas. The mean teeth of PD in 35-44 and 55-64 years old groups were significant higher in the male than the female. The prevalence and the mean teeth with LOA were both significant higher in the male than the female. Conclusion The periodontal diseases indications are common in 35-74 years old people and most necessary at the age of 55-64 in Guangdong. The periodontal health may have extensive influence on oral health status in the middle-aged and the elder population in Guangdong.