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    20 January 2017, Volume 25 Issue 1
    Expert Forum
    Application of All-on-Four technology in the field of dental implants
    Lei ZHOU,Xin-xin YUE
    2017, 25(1):  1-7.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.01.001
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    Dental implant restoration is an effective way to restore the chewing and aesthetic function for edentulous. However, dental implant restoration is facing great challenges of the lack of available bone, the maxillary sinus or inferior alveolar nerve vascular bundle, which is often necessary to carry out the related bone augmentation operation. All-on-Four technique is to use four implants in the anterior part of complete edentulous jaws, the two most anterior implants are placed axially whereas the two posterior implants are placed distally angled, to support a provisional, fixed, and immediately loaded prosthesis. The technique avoids the artificial bone substitutes implantation and maxillary sinus augmentation or other bone augmentation surgery. Besides, it could alleviate patients' psychological reaction, postoperative reaction, as well as time and money costs. It is considered a feasible treatment method to combine the application of the oblique implant and the axial implant in the treatment of the edentulous patients. This paper will elaborate on the concept of All-on-Four, the conventional technology, the evaluation research and some new viewpoints.

    Maxillary sinus floor elevation
    Hong-chang LAI,Jun-yu SHI
    2017, 25(1):  8-12.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.01.002
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    Maxillary sinus floor elevation is a common method to increase the bone height in posterior maxilla. Maxillary sinus floor elevation can be divided into 2 types: sinus floor elevation with lateral window approach and sinus floor elevation with trans-alveolar approach. The present article reported the anatomy, antibiotics choice, indications, grafting, growth factors, complications and the influence of tobacco on maxillary sinus floor elevation.

    Special Articles
    A 50 years' single-center analysis of epidemiologic characteristics of oral cancer in Guangdong Province
    Ji ZHANG,Zhong-yuan YANG,Xing ZHANG,Shu-wei CHEN,Fan GAO,Xi-di WANG,Ming SONG
    2017, 25(1):  13-20.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.01.003
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    Objective To study the epidemiological characteristics of oral cancer and the pattern of the onset of oral cancer, in order to provide references for preventing and monitoring the development of oral cancer. Methods The information of 4 097 oral cancer patients who came from Guangdong province treated in the Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer center from 1960 to 2013 was retrospectively analyzed. SPSS 21.0 was used for the statistical analyses.Results The male-to-female ratio among oral cancer patients was approximately 2:1 and this ratio decreased over time. Oral cancer mostly occurred in patients between 45 to 64 years, and the percentage of elderly patients gradually increased over time. The most common location was the tongue especially lateral tongue. The pathological type of oral cancer was mainly squamous cell carcinoma. The percentage of O blood type in oral cancer patients was significantly lower than that in the normal population. The male-to-female ratio in the Chaoshan area was higher than that in the Guangfu area and the Hakka area, whereas the age of disease onset in the Guangfu area was higher than that in the Hakka and Chaoshan areas. The male-to-female ratio was lower and the age of disease onset was higher in the Pearl River Delta region than in the non-Pearl River Delta region.Conclusion During the process of screening for oral cancer, more attention should be paid to the middle-aged and elderly, males, and non-O blood type individuals. In addition, propaganda should be strengthened to encourage residents to change bad living habits.

    Basic Study
    Effects of arecoline and calcium ion on the permeability of dysplastic oral epithelia model in vitro
    Dong-lan HOU,Rong CHEN,Yi-jun GAO,Xiao-min YIN
    2017, 25(1):  21-25.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.01.004
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    Objective To study the effects of arecolineand Calcium ion (Ca 2+) on the permeability of dysplastic oral epithelia model in vitro. Methods To establish the dysplastic oral epithelia model in vitro by culturing oral keratinocyte(DOK) and harvesting a DOK cell monolayer. The models were divided into control group, arecoline group and "Ca 2++ arecoline" group. The values of Lucifer Yellow Papp were used to estimate the permeability changes of models after treatedwith arecoline and Ca 2+. Results In arecoline group, the lucifer yellow Papp values of each subgroup were higher than that of control group (P < 0.05), and the values increased as arecoline concentration elevated and time lasted (P < 0.05). When the "Ca 2++ arecoline" group were pretreated with Ca 2+, the values of subgroup "10 μg/mL" was lower than that of the corresponding arecoline group (P > 0.05). However, the value of subgroup "4 h 10 μg/mL" of "Ca 2++ arecoline" group had no statistical difference with that of control group (P > 0.05), while the other subgroups were increased (P < 0.05); Besides, these values in "Ca 2++ arecoline" group were increased as the arecoline concentration elevated and time lasted too (P < 0.05). Conclusion Intervention of arecoline contributes to the increase of permeability of DOK cell monolayer model, which maybe an important reason for the cancerization of dysplastic oral epithelia, however Ca 2+might weaken these effects of arecoline in the process.

    Effects of high glucose on osteogenic differentiation of hBMSC
    Hai GAO,Xiao CHEN,Dong-hua GUAN,Ying-jie ZHANG,Chang-lü LIN
    2017, 25(1):  26-30.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.01.005
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    Objective To investigate the effects of different glucose concentration on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC) in vivo Methods Cultured with basal medium containing different glucose concentrations, CCK-8 cell proliferation was detected at 1, 4, 7, 10 days. The osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells was observed at 7 d, which was induced by osteogenic differentiation medium with different concentration of glucose. The expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and collagen type I (Col-1) gene were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Mineralized nodule formation was displayed by calciumalizarin red staining on the seventh day. Results 10 mM glucose stimulated proliferation of hBMSC, while the higher (>30 mM) inhibited the proliferation (P < 0.05); Osteogenic induction can induce osteogenic differentiation of hBMSC, but the increase of glucose concentration will decrease the formation of mineralized nodules of hBMSC, inhibit the expression of osteogenic marker genes ALP, OC and Col-1 (P < 0.05). Conclusion The expression of Col-1, ALP and OC in osteoblast was down-regulated by high glucose, and the hBMSC proliferation was inhibited. At the same time, high glucose can reduce the osteogenic mineralization ability of stem cells and indirectly affect bone formation and metabolism.

    Cinical Study
    Clinical study of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws
    Yu-ling WU,Xiao-peng ZHAO,Ling-jian YAN,Chao-bin PAN
    2017, 25(1):  31-36.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.01.006
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    Objective To understand the pathogenesis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) and to investigate its differential diagnosis, clinical manifestations, treatment and prevention. Methods By analyzing the clinical data of 4 patients with BRONJ in the retrospective study with reviewing related literatures in the world to make a summary of it.Results Cases of 4 patients mainly presented recurring pain, discharging of pus and disposure and necrosis of the bone. 3 patients received surgical and antibiotics treatments, one of them had local infection which was under control by oral antibiotic. The other 2 patients had no infection and recurrence.Conclusion BRONJ is caused by jaw necrosis due to bisphosphonate inhibition of osteoclast function. For the reason that none of the treatments is unified and satisfied, we should focus on the risk factors in prevention. Appropriate surgery treatment could be well controlled the process of the BRONJ which should be popularization in our study.

    Clinical analysis of aneurysmal bone cyst in jaw bone
    Wei WANG,Xi-tao TAN,Yu-feng CHI
    2017, 25(1):  37-40.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.01.007
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    Objective To investigate aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) in oral and maxillofacial of clinical appearance, clinical treatment and prognosis. Methods From July 2003 to December 2015, 8 patients with aneurysmal bone cyst in jaw bone was treated and recorded with the general condition, clinical symptoms, imaging examinations, surgical treatment and prognosis. Results Among the 8 patients, there were 5 females and 3 males with the age from 5 to 48 years old. 5 cases happened in mandibular bone and 3 cases originated from the maxillary bone. All the patients were primary lesions and diagnosed by pathology. CT scan showed multilocular cystic expansive space occupying lesions, septa, residual bone crest and liquid-liquid form; enhanced imaging showed the tortuous and dilated small blood vessels. Cystic wall composed of spindle shaped fiber cells, tissues and cells, broken bone like multinucleated giant cells and chronic inflammatory cells form and a ribbon like structure, cysts separated by fibrous tissue containing bone and bone fragments, hemorrhage and hemosiderin deposition was observed which was confirmed under the light microscope. The main treatment of aneurysmal bone cyst was radical operation. After 1~6 years of follow-up, no patient was found recurrence. Conclusion The imaging findings of aneurysmal bone cyst in jaw bone was distintive, with diagnosis of the disease depended on pathology; the main treatment was radical operation with good prognosis.

    Effects of adult cleft palate surgery combined with pharyngoplasty
    Fang TAN,Hai BAO,Chun HUANG,Feng CAI
    2017, 25(1):  41-43.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.01.008
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    Objective To assess the voice recoverment of pharynplasty given at the same time with the velopharyngeal closure surgery.Methods 36 cases of cleft palate patients aged 18-32 years were divided into control group (18 cases) and experimental group (18 cases). Only cleft palate surgery was given in the control group, while pharyngoplasty combined with the palate closure surgery were given in the experimental group. Wound healing assessment were performed after 1 week , and voice improvement were compared in the 2 groups after 3 months.Results Well wound healings without any infections were achieved in all the cases, except for 1 case had a palate dehiscence 1 week after the operation. Dysarthria and nasal leak were improved significantly in the experiment group (P < 0.05), however the nasal resonance improvement between the 2 groups were not significantly different (P > 0.05).Conclusion Adult cleft palate surgery combined with the pharyngeal angioplasty is a recommended method.

    A study of root canal morphology in maxillary third molars using cone-beam computed tomography
    He QUAN,Dan WANG,Jie YUAN
    2017, 25(1):  44-47.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.01.009
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    Objective This study investigated root canal morphology in maxillary third molars by CBCT to provide an anatomical guideline for clinical treatment. Methods CBCT images of 397 maxillary third molars were collected. The root canal morphology was analysed, including the number of roots and the type of canals.Results In 397 maxillary third molars, three roots were the most frequently type, accounting for 43.07% and the fused root teeth were the second, accounting for 40.30%. For the root canal type, three canals were the most common, accounting for 47.86%, followed by single canal, accounting for 28.21%. According to the Vertucci root canal classification, 89.6% of the root canals were typeⅠ, the rest were typeⅡ, typeⅢ, type Ⅴ, and other types of root canals which were difficult to deal with in clinical treatment.Conclusion The root canal morphology of the maxillary third molar is various and the root canal system was complicated.

    Prevention and Treatment Practice
    Evaluation of the use of dental operating microscope in the treatment of calcified canals
    Yong MA
    2017, 25(1):  48-51.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.01.010
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    Objective

    To evaluate the use of dental operating microscope in treating calcified canals. Methods 369 calcified canals were treated with C-Pilot files and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) under dental operating microscope. The canals were grouped based on the calcified teeth site and calcified location in canals, and then the success rates of negotiating were analyzed with χ 2 test. Results 310 of 369 calcified canals were negotiated under dental operating microscope, the negotiating rate was 84.01%. For the anterior, premolar and molar, the negotiating rate were 94.78%, 85.98%, and 74.15% respectively. There were significant differences between anterior and molar teeth (χ 2 = 19.658, P<0.05). When the calcification was located in straight canals or above the root canal curvature, canals were negotiated with a success rate of 96.85%. However, it decreased to 39.76% when the calcified portion located below the root canal curvature (χ 2 = 156.113, P<0.05). Conclusion It is an effective way to use dental operating microscope and C-Pilot files to treat calcified canals, but the therapeutic effects might be affected by sites of the teeth and the calcified location in canals.

    Epidemiological analysis of dental caries among pupils in Shenzhen city
    Ju-hong LI,Shi-hong RUAN,Zi-yang ZHANG,Jian WU
    2017, 25(1):  52-54.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.01.011
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    Objective To understand the distribution and treatment of dental caries among primary school students in Shenzhen City, and to provide a basis for prevention and treatment of dental caries of primary school students in Shenzhen City. Methods Using cluster sampling method, in the 10 districts of Shenzhen city, a total of 74 308 students in 63 primary school, were randomly selected and received examination of dental caries.Results Prevalence of caries was 15.7%. Decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) was 0.37 ± 0.18. Significant differences in age and gender distribution were found (P < 0.05). There is a correlation between prevalence of permanent teeth caries and age (P < 0.05). Rate of pit and fissure sealant, filling in permanent teeth were 31.17%, 19.05%. Controlling age and gender factors, significant differences between genders were found in rate of pit and fissure sealant, filling in permanent teeth (P < 0.05).Conclusion Prevention of dental caries for pupils in Shenzhen city needs to be strengthened.

    Analysis of nursing effect of different feeding ways in children with congenital cleft lip after surgery
    Su-song WEI,Ai-lan XIE,Wen-ping CHEN,Xiao-ling WENG,Si-ni QIU,Ni LIU,Zhen-nü ZHANG,Xia-mei SONG
    2017, 25(1):  55-58.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.01.012
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    Objective To investigate the influence of different feeding ways on the incidence rate of complication in patients with congenital cleft lip and their family satisfaction degree. Methods A retrospective analysis were conducted from 90 cases underwent surgery of congenital cleft lip with clinical data, were randomly assigned to the control group and the observation group, 45 cases in each. The control group routinely take spoon feeding way after surgery, whereas patients in the observation group does not change the feeding way in the past, continuely taking the nipple feeding or breastfeeding. Wound infection rate, wound rupture rate, crying in the process of feeding and parents' satisfaction were compared between the two groups.Results The wound infection rate and wound rate of the observation group were 2.2% and 0 respectively, the control group were 4.4% and 0 respectively. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the 2 index (P > 0.05). In the observation group, the crying children were less than the control group, In the observation group, the degree of coordination, parental satisfaction and acceptance of feeding were 84.4%, 88.9%, 93.3%, respectively, the control group were 55.6%, 60.0%, 66.7%. The observation group were better than the control group. The differences between groups was statistically significant (χ 2 coordination degree = 8.94, χ 2satisfaction degree = 9.87, χ 2recognition degree = 10.00, P < 0.05). Conclusion Children under the age of 1 with congenital grade Ⅰ and Ⅱ cleft lip do not change the way of feeding after surgery , who continue to take the bottle or breastfeeding can better meet the needs of children fed liquid diet, crying reduce, get parents' recogniton and reduce the burden on parents than the control group conventionally fed with a spoon.

    Assessing the effect of pit and fissure sealing on 733 six-year-teeth four years later
    Xi-gen LIU,Shao-hong HUANG
    2017, 25(1):  59-62.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.01.013
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    Objective Assessing the effect of pit and fissure sealing on children’mandibular first molar in four years follow-up. Methods The second grade pupils of five primary schools in Guangzhou were given pit and fissure sealing, 733 teeth were performed pit and fissure sealant. The retention rate of the sealant and caries incidence of the mandibular first molar were analysed in four years follow-up. Results In four years follow-up, the retention rate of mandibular first molar was 57.16%. In terms of the caries incidence, the sealing group was 9.82%, while the unsealing group was 15.77%(χ 2 = 7.045, P < 0.05). The decrease rate of caries in the sealing group was 37.73%, the caries incidence for the shallow pit and fissure group was 7.76%, no statistical differentce could be found two groups (χ 2 = 0.844,P = 0.358). Conclusion Caries incidence of mandibular first molar obviously decreased 4 years later after the pit and fissure sealing.

    Review Articles
    Research progress on soft tissue treatment technology of the delayed implant restoration in aesthetic area
    Chun-yun XIE,Jian LIAO,Min-xian MA,Yong WANG
    2017, 25(1):  63-66.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2017.01.014
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    In patients with anterior teeth loss, especially in patients with soft tissue defects, the aesthetic problem of soft tissue is still a major problem in the delayed planting restoration. In the restoration of anterior teeth, the health of the soft tissue around implants play a key role in guaranteeing the long-term success of dental implants. Therefore, consideration is worth being taken that how to deal with the soft tissue during the process of the delayed implant restoration as well as how to evaluate the effects after treatment. According to the process of the delayed implant operation sequence therapy-preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative treatment, this article will have a literature review and summary through these aspects as followings: the red aesthetic evaluation index, treatment of soft tissue around delayed implant, clinical curative effect evaluation.