Objective To study the effect of orthodontic treatment on alveolar bone density and epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression in patients with periodontal disease. Methods 50 patients with periodontal disease admitted into our hospital from January 2015 to January 2016 were selected as research object. Results Before treatment, patients were given dental health instruction. Under the conditions of patients agreeing and cooperating, patients received orthodontic treatment. The changes of alveolar bone density, EGF in blood, saliva, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), indexes of periodontal inflammation (gingival index, papilla Bleeding index, probing depth) of patients before and after treatment for one month were compared. Before treatment, the mandibular alveolar bone density was significantly higher than maxillary alveolar bone density (P < 0.05); After treatment, the maxillary and mandibular alveolar bone density were significantly lower than before treatment, and maxillary bone density was significantly lower than mandibular bone density (P < 0.05); After one-month treatment, the concentration of EGF expression in blood, saliva compared with before treatment, there was no statistical significance (P > 0.05); After one-month treatment, the concentration of EGF expression in GCF was significantly higher than before treatment (P < 0.05); Before and after treatment for one month, the concentration of EGF expression in GCF was significantly higher than blood, saliva (P < 0.05); After treatment, the GI, PBI, PD levels were significantly lower than before treatment (P < 0.05); After treatment, flow of saliva and GCF were significantly higher than before treatment (P < 0.05).Conclusion Orthodontic treatment has certain influence on EGF expression in GCF, but has no obvious influence on EGF expression in blood and saliva; The increase of EGF expression derives from periodontal tissue cells and has close association with periodontal remodeling, periodontal tissue cells can promote self-remodeling through autogenous regulation and local humoral regulation.