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Yang CAO, Zhuannong ZHAO

2018 Vol.26(4): 205–210    [Abstract] ( 252 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 93 )   [PDF 1606 KB ]( 246 )

Qian TAO, Xin LIU

2018 Vol.26(4): 211–217    [Abstract] ( 159 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 13 )   [PDF 849 KB ]( 172 )

Jianming ZHANG, Jianbo LI, Weihua FAN, Shaohong HUANG

2018 Vol.26(4): 218–221    [Abstract] ( 183 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 12 )   [PDF 726 KB ]( 147 )

Wenxi HUANG, Ying OUYANG, Changbo WEI, Dongsheng YU

2018 Vol.26(4): 222–226    [Abstract] ( 176 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 2 )   [PDF 1717 KB ]( 152 )

Zhengquan HE, Kai YANG

2018 Vol.26(4): 227–230    [Abstract] ( 142 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 15 )   [PDF 2911 KB ]( 165 )

Junping LIU, Chen YI, Jianguang WANG

2018 Vol.26(4): 231–235    [Abstract] ( 136 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 9 )   [PDF 1915 KB ]( 100 )

Huang SHU, Feng YANG, Ji WANG, Yuhan XIAO, Guicong DING

2018 Vol.26(4): 236–239    [Abstract] ( 137 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 3 )   [PDF 883 KB ]( 106 )

Xixi YU, Jian Lü, Caixia WANG, Yiheng WANG, Songsong DENG, Lulu LI, Wanchun WANG

2018 Vol.26(4): 240–244    [Abstract] ( 141 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 6 )   [PDF 733 KB ]( 133 )

Juan ZHANG, Dongjian LI, Jie JIANG, Yan SITU, Shuangshuang ZOU, Xingtao. WEN

2018 Vol.26(4): 245–249    [Abstract] ( 147 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 5 )   [PDF 2168 KB ]( 350 )

Feng HUANG, Jianhui HE, Ying OUYANG

2018 Vol.26(4): 250–253    [Abstract] ( 172 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 10 )   [PDF 716 KB ]( 163 )

Lingkun HE, Wei XIONG

2018 Vol.26(4): 254–257    [Abstract] ( 149 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 11 )   [PDF 703 KB ]( 118 )

Bosen ZHANG, Jiayuan WU

2018 Vol.26(4): 258–262    [Abstract] ( 169 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 16 )   [PDF 837 KB ]( 152 )

Yuming WU, Kai LUO

2018 Vol.26(4): 263–267    [Abstract] ( 344 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 11 )   [PDF 715 KB ]( 106 )

Yang LIU, Yueping ZHAO

2018 Vol.26(4): 268–272    [Abstract] ( 174 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 2 )   [PDF 838 KB ]( 119 )

Yang CAO, Zhuannong ZHAO

2018 Vol.26(4): 205–210    [Abstract] ( 252 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 93 )   [PDF 1606 KB ]( 246 )

Recently, corticotomy-assisted orthodontic treatments have gathered increasing clinical attention and have been applied more frequently. This technique evolved from traditional corticotomies on the buccal and palatal sides to buccal flapless corticotomies. Accumulating clinical studies suggest that this method leads to accelerated tooth movement, augmented alveolar bone and improved periodontal tissue health. This paper provides an overview of the development of this surgical technique and clinical research results.

Qian TAO, Xin LIU

2018 Vol.26(4): 211–217    [Abstract] ( 159 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 13 )   [PDF 849 KB ]( 172 )

Saliva is rich in DNA, RNA, proteins, microorganisms and metabolites, containing large amounts of bio?information, similar to blood, and reflecting the physiological or pathological state of the whole body. Additionally, with its advantages of non?invasive collection methods, safe transport and low transportation cost, saliva has attracted extensive attention of scholars recently as a potential substitute for blood. With the rapid development of high?throughput techniques such as microarray technology, whole genome sequencing and whole transcriptome sequencing, a variety of disease-specific salivary biomarkers have been discovered. Salivary transcriptomics, a bridge connecting genomics and proteomics, provides a comprehensive understanding of gene transcription, RNA composition and interactions. This methodology not only allows the investigation of salivary components with temporal and spatial specificity but also reveals regulatory networks during disease development, with high potential for the early screening and assessment of diseases. Here, we outline the development of salivary transcriptomics, highlight its current research status in oral cancer from two aspects of technological and clinical applications, and further address prospects and challenges of the near future.

Jianming ZHANG, Jianbo LI, Weihua FAN, Shaohong HUANG

2018 Vol.26(4): 218–221    [Abstract] ( 183 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 12 )   [PDF 726 KB ]( 147 )

ObjectiveTo investigate the dental fluorosis status of permanent teeth of a 12-year-old population of Guangdong Province to provide informational support for oral health care in Guangdong.Methods An equal-sized cross-sectional random-sample assessment was carried out among 1 920 urban and rural residents of Guangdong Province, half male and half female, aged 12 years. We examined the dental fluorosis status of complete permanent teeth crown based on a health survey and the criteria of clinical dental fluorosis from the fourth national oral health survey. The data were analyzed by SAS9.2 to investigate the prevalence and community fluorosis index as well as gender and urban and rural differences, and compared with the prevalence of fluorosis in Guangdong Province in 2005 and 1995.Results In the 12-year-old population, the prevalence of dental fluorosis was 5.05%, and the community fluorosis index was 0.108. There was no significant difference between genders(P > 0.05), but there was a significant difference between subjects from urban and rural areas(P < 0.05). There were significant differences among prevalence of dental fluorosis and community fluorosis index in 1995, 2005 and 2015—2016(P < 0.05).Conclusion The prevalence of dental fluorosis and the community fluorosis index of 12-year-old people of Guangdong Province are relatively low, but there is an upward trend.

Wenxi HUANG, Ying OUYANG, Changbo WEI, Dongsheng YU

2018 Vol.26(4): 222–226    [Abstract] ( 176 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 2 )   [PDF 1717 KB ]( 152 )

Objective To assess the expression of miR-21, miR-221, and miR-222 in exosomes of CAL27 tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells. Methods CAL27 tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells and normal human oral keratinocytes (HOKs) were cultured, and then, the cultured supernatant was collected to separate the exosomes. Exosomes were detected by electron microscopy, and the expression levels of miR-21, miR-221, and miR-222 in the exosomes of tongue cancer cells were measured by qRT-PCR. Results Exosomes existed in the cultured supernatants of CAL27 cells and HOKs. Additionally, the expression levels of miR-21, miR-221, and miR-222 in the exosomes of CAL27 cells were significantly enhanced compared with those in the HOK exosomes (P < 0.05). Conclusion The expression levels of miR-21, miR-221, and miR-222 were markedly enhanced in the exosomes of CAL27 tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells.

Zhengquan HE, Kai YANG

2018 Vol.26(4): 227–230    [Abstract] ( 142 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 15 )   [PDF 2911 KB ]( 165 )

Objective To assess hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression levels in the periodontal tissues of the pressure side during orthodontic tooth movement in rats.Methods A total of 50 male 6-week-old Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 10 groups of 5 rats each. The upper left first molar was the experimental tooth and was pulled mesially with an orthodontic force of 10-15 g for 0, 1, 3, 6, or 12 h, or 1, 3, 7, 14, or 21 d. Routine five-micrometer paraffin-embedded tissue sections were processed for HE staining and immunohistochemical staining for HIF-1α. The Image-Pro Plus system was used to quantitatively analyze the stained slices. The expression of HIF-1α in the periodontal tissue of the pressure side changed during the process of orthodontic tooth movement.Results The expression of HIF-1α increased immediately after loading for 1 h, reached a small peak at 3 h, and then decreased. After 12 h, the expression increased again, reached a peak after 1 d, and then gradually decreased to near the pre-loading level(P < 0.05). Conclusion There were differences in expression of HIF-1α in different groups in the periodontal tissues of the pressure side during orthodontic tooth movement in rats.

Junping LIU, Chen YI, Jianguang WANG

2018 Vol.26(4): 231–235    [Abstract] ( 136 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 9 )   [PDF 1915 KB ]( 100 )

Objective To summarize the clinical experience of removing infratemporal fossa and pterygopalatine fossa foreign bodies via a trans-oral approach. Methods The clinical data of 9 patients with foreign bodies in the infratemporal fossa and pterygopalatine fossa hospitalized from March 2008 to June 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. Among these cases, 4 were flying injuries, 2 were falling injuries, 2 were traffic injuries and 1 was an iatrogenic syringe injury. Foreign bodies were divided into the following categories: 3 cases of wood from branches, 3 cases of iron filings, 2 cases of broken glass, and one case of a broken syringe needle. Before surgery, all subjects underwent spiral CT three-dimensional reconstruction and CT angiography examinations. After accurately determining the relationship between the foreign body and the internal and external carotid arteries and their branches, patients underwent an operation under general anesthesia to remove the foreign body via a trans-oral approach. In addition, patients participated in mouth opening training for one week. Then, patients were followed for 1 to 6 months. Foreign bodies were removed completely in all 9 patients. Results Foreign bodies were independently located in the pterygopalatine fossa in 2 cases and in the in fratemporal fossa in 3 cases. There were 4 cases of foreign bodies located in both the infratemporal fossa and the pterygopalatine fossa. All 9 patients had the foreign bodies completely removed and were discharged one week after surgery. They were followed for 1 to 6 months. Their mouth opening and occlusion were normal, without any complications. Conclusion Spiral CT, 3D reconstruction and CT angiography examinations are necessary and important for accurate pre-operation positioning. It is feasible to remove foreign bodies in the infratemporal fossa and pterygopalatine fossa via a trans-oral approach.

Huang SHU, Feng YANG, Ji WANG, Yuhan XIAO, Guicong DING

2018 Vol.26(4): 236–239    [Abstract] ( 137 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 3 )   [PDF 883 KB ]( 106 )

Objective To investigate possible functional disorders of central auditory processing and language in school-age children with cleft palate through an assessment of the characteristics of the P300 and N400 event-related potentials (ERPs). Methods This study included 28 school-age children with cleft palate, aged 6 to 12 years, and 30 children without cleft palate as a control group. The P300 and N400 ERPs were selected as indexes of the central auditory processing and language functions of children in both groups. The data were statistically compared between the two groups. Results Compared with the controls, the children with cleft palate showed a significantly prolonged P300 latency (331.73 ± 14.94 ms vs. 348.64 ± 14.66 ms, P < 0.05) and a significantly decreased P300 amplitude (13.47 ± 2.24 μV vs. 12.07 ± 2.46 μV, P < 0.05). Similarly, the N400 latency of children with cleft palate was significantly prolonged compared to that of controls (431.07 ± 17.90 ms vs. 408.23 ± 18.04 ms, P < 0.05), and the N400 amplitude was significantly decreased compared to that of controls (13.75 ± 2.12 μV vs. 15.17 ± 2.34 μV, P < 0.05). Conclusion School-age children with cleft palate may have central auditory processing disorders and language dysfunctions.

Xixi YU, Jian Lü, Caixia WANG, Yiheng WANG, Songsong DENG, Lulu LI, Wanchun WANG

2018 Vol.26(4): 240–244    [Abstract] ( 141 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 6 )   [PDF 733 KB ]( 133 )

To determine differences in pain, salivary components and taste between burning mouth syndrome (BMS) patients and the normal population and to study the effects of intramuscular injections of vitamin B1 (VitB1) and vitamin B12 (VitB12) on BMS. Before treatment: We observed and compared differences in unstimulated salivary flow rate (USFR); stimulated salivary flow rate (SSFR); salivary amylase, cortisol, and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) concentrations; and taste levels between BMS patients and normal controls. After treatment: The treatment group received an intramuscular injection of 100 mg VitB1 and 0.5 mg VitB12 in the buttocks once per day for 10 days. The above indexes were recorded before and after treatment and compared. A visual analog scale (VAS) score was used to assess the degree of pain relief in patients and as a clinical evaluation index. Before treatment: SSFR, salivary amylase levels and bitter taste levels of the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P < 0.05). The concentration of SIgA was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < 0.05), and the USFR and the cortisol concentration were not significant different from the those of the control group (P > 0.05). After treatment: The total effective rate of VitB1 and VitB12 on BMS was up to 70%. USFR was increased significantly after treatment (P < 0.05), and the concentration of SIgA decreased (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the SSFR or the cortisol and salivary amylase concentrations (P > 0.05). Taste levels improved by varying degrees. The abnormal decreases in SSFR, salivary amylase levels, and taste sensitivity and the abnormal increase in SIgA levels seen in BMS patients may be sensitive salivary indicators for the diagnosis of BMS. A VitB1 and VitB12 intramuscular injection is an effective treatment for patients with BMS, who showed pain relief. Changes in SIgA levels may be used as an indicator during follow-up and for the prognosis of BMS patients.

Juan ZHANG, Dongjian LI, Jie JIANG, Yan SITU, Shuangshuang ZOU, Xingtao. WEN

2018 Vol.26(4): 245–249    [Abstract] ( 147 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 5 )   [PDF 2168 KB ]( 350 )

Objective The objective of this study was to compare the early clinical effects of zirconia all-ceramic crowns using two different impression methods. Zirconia ceramic crowns were produced using digital models based on either a silicone rubber impression perfusion model in vitro or a 3D mouth scanner. A total of 50 patients with a planned restoration of the first permanent molar with zirconia all-ceramic crowns after root canal therapy were selected and randomly divided into two groups: a digital impression by intraoral 3D scanning group and a digital impression by extraoral scanning after silicone rubber impression group. Zirconia all-ceramic crowns were created by CAD/CAM in both groups. Marginal adaptation, proximal contact, and occlusal contact were compared between groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups in marginal adaptation (P > 0.05). For proximal contact and occlusal contact, no significant differences regarding the number of cases for the criteria of level A and level B were found between two groups (P > 0.05), while the misfit value in level B was smaller in the first group than in the second group (P < 0.05). Zirconia all-ceramic crowns with intraoral 3D scanning show excellent early clinical performance.

Feng HUANG, Jianhui HE, Ying OUYANG

2018 Vol.26(4): 250–253    [Abstract] ( 172 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 10 )   [PDF 716 KB ]( 163 )

Objective To compare the 2-year survival rate of anterior implants with delayed or immediate loading and to explore the risk factors associated with immediate loading implantation.Methods A total of 126 patients were assessed from July 2012 to July 2015, including 210 implants. The patients were followed for more than 2 years. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed using logrank tests and Cox regression analysis to identify risk factors for dental implant failure with the immediate loading or conventional loading of anterior teeth. Results The 2-year survival rates of anterior implants with delayed and immediate loading were 96.3% and 89.0%, respectively. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant(P < 0.05). The 2-year survival rate with delayed loading of implants was higher than that of the immediate loading of implants. Survival analysis indicated that the risk factors for implant failure were smoking and maxillary implantation in both the immediate loading and conventional loading groups.Conclusion There is high risk associated with the immediate loading of anterior implants. The immediate loading of maxillary anterior implants and smoking in association with implantation may cause implant failure.

Lingkun HE, Wei XIONG

2018 Vol.26(4): 254–257    [Abstract] ( 149 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 11 )   [PDF 703 KB ]( 118 )

Oral maxillofacial pain is one of the most common symptoms that greatly influences patients′ quality of life. Infectious diseases, nerve injuries and tumors in the oromaxillofacial region can cause facial pain. P2X receptors are located in the central and peripheral nervous system. P2X receptors are non-selective cation channels that are activated by extracellular ATP and play an important role in nociceptive processing. In recent years, research into the relationship between P2X receptors and pain has become popular. Research shows that P2X receptors are expressed in the trigeminal ganglia (TG) of the primary sensory ganglion, and the effects of P2X receptors on facial pain and their related conduction mechanisms are worthy of additional research. To provide new ideas for orofacial pain prevention and treatment, this article reviews the latest progress in research regarding the role of P2X receptors in inflammatory pain, neuropathic pain, and cancer pain, among others, of the oromaxillofacial region.

Bosen ZHANG, Jiayuan WU

2018 Vol.26(4): 258–262    [Abstract] ( 169 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 16 )   [PDF 837 KB ]( 152 )

Of the various root canal morphologies in mandibular molars, the middle mesial root canal is located between the mesiobuccal root canal and the mesiolingual root canal. The middle mesial root canal is a partial or completely independent extra root canal. Because of its fine structure, concealment and even calcification of the root canal orifice, it is difficult to completely clean and fill this root canal and it is easily omitted by dentists. The current study reviewed recent progress in terms of the incidence rate, classification, influencing factors, and exploration and preparation techniques of the middle mesial root canal of the human mandibular molar to provide a reference for clinical diagnoses and treatment.

Yuming WU, Kai LUO

2018 Vol.26(4): 263–267    [Abstract] ( 344 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 11 )   [PDF 715 KB ]( 106 )

Periodontal disease is one of the most common oral diseases and a prime reason for adult tooth loss. One of the goals of periodontal therapy is to regenerate and restore the periodontal tissues affected by periodontitis to their original architectural form and function. Cementum is an important component of periodontal tissue that plays a significant role in periodontal tissue regeneration. Explorations of the characteristics and components of cementum and the potential of growth factors related to cementum formation, especially the roles played by cementum-specific proteins and their potential in promoting periodontal regeneration, have become popular in current research. Here, we review the characteristics and components of cementum and the potential roles played by cementum-specific proteins during cementum formation and periodontal regeneration.

Yang LIU, Yueping ZHAO

2018 Vol.26(4): 268–272    [Abstract] ( 174 )    [RICH HTML ] ( 2 )   [PDF 838 KB ]( 119 )

Periodontal disease is a common and frequently occurring oral disease, with numerous investigations on periodontitis etiology and treatment. The development of periodontal disease is affected by many factors, including local stimulation and systemic risk factors, and dental plaque biofilm is regarded as an initial factor. The molecular mechanisms of how dental plaque biofilm and other risk factors regulate the development of periodontal disease remain unclear. Autophagy is a ubiquitous self-regulating mechanism of eukaryotes and a process of cell self-phagocytosis and digestion. Autophagy is a complex process, involving a variety of cellular and tissue activities, including cellular stress, clearance of endogenous and exogenous cellular components, development, aging and cancer. Recent studies have shown that autophagy is closely related to inflammation. This paper addresses recent research advances in understanding the correlations between periodontal disease and autophagy to provide a reference in the study of new methods to treat periodontal disease from the perspective of autophagy in the future.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.