Most salivary gland stones involve the submandibular gland, which often cause recurrent swelling and pain of the glands after meals, and used to be the main reasons for the gland removals. With the trend of minimally invasive treatment, gland preservation and functional recovery in the diagnosis and the treatment of submandibular lithiasis have been paid more and more attention. New equipment and technologies such as CBCT and sialendoscopy, which are widely used in clinical practice, have contributed a lot to the accurate orientation and minimally invasive treatment of stones, and enriched the managements of submandibular lithiasis. Based on our experience and the review of relevant literature, this paper attempts to summarize the treatment strategies for submandibular stones distributed in different parts of the duct: ① emphasizing on the integrity and functions of the organ; ② endoscopy and minimal invasiveness come first; ③ scientific classifications and personal managements. Appropriate treatment options should be selected according to the features of the stones: endoscopic lithotomy helps a lot in removing those located in the anterior or middle part of the duct; endoscopic lithotomy or/and sialolithotomy are needed according to the features of hilar stones; the regular follow-up is required for the intraglandular stones. Meanwhile, the evaluation of the gland function is also important. After the removals of sunmandibular stones, the functions of the glands should be promoted to restore as far as possible.
Objective To investigate the differences and clinical significance of circRNA expression profiles in oral leukoplakia (OLK) tissues and normal oral mucosal (NOM) tissues. Methods High-throughput sequencing was used to detect differentially expressed circRNAs in 6 pairs of OLK and NOM tissues, and qRT-PCR was used to verify the expression of 10 circRNAs screened in 6 pairs of OLK and NOM tissues. The ring formation of circRNA was verified by RNase R digestion and Sanger sequencing, and the target circHLA-C was further verified by qRT-PCR in 20 pairs of OLK and NOM tissues. CircHLA-C was visualized using the UCSC genome browser (genome.ucsc.edu). The function of differentially expressed circRNAs was analyzed by GO and KEGG enrichment analyses. TargetScan and miRanda predicted the downstream miRNAs and mRNAs of the target circRNAs, and a ceRNA network related to the identified circRNAs was constructed in Cytoscape. Results Sequencing analysis showed that 366 circRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in OLK tissues, including 65 upregulated and 301 downregulated circRNAs. After qRT-PCR verification, 7 of the 10 screened circRNAs were expressed consistent with the sequencing results. The upregulated circHLA-C was confirmed to be a real circRNA with back-splice junction sites by RNase R digestion and Sanger sequencing. Correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between circHLA-C and the degree of OLK dysplasia. ROC curve analysis suggested that circHLA-C had potential value in diagnosing OLK with high accuracy and specificity. Conclusion CircRNA was significantly abnormally expressed in OLK tissues, and the upregulation of circHLA-C may be related to the degree of OLK dysplasia, providing guiding value for the diagnosis of OLK in the future.
Objective To fabricate a co-delivery system of curcumin (CUR) and siRNA based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) and investigate its potential application in inducing macrophage M2 polarization. Methods MSNs were synthesized using the conventional sol-gel method. The interior mesochannels were occupied by small-molecule CUR, while the exterior surface was adsorbed by cationic polymeric polyethyleneimine (PEI) to link the negatively charged siRNA molecules to formulate the (CUR@MSN)PEI/siRNA co-delivery system. The formulation process was monitored by transmission electron microscopy(TEM). The MTT assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 cells under various concentrations of nanoparticles. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and TEM were used to observe cell internalization using FAM-labeled siRNA. GAPDH-targeting siRNA was used to prepare nanoparticles and then was transfected into RAW264.7 cells to observe the silencing efficiency of target genes. The knockdown efficiency was examined by real-time quantitative PCR. The related control groups were untreated cells, CUR delivery only and the co-delivery of CUR and siRNA negative control. By loading miRNA-130a-3p antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) to transfect RAW264.7 cells, the effects on the polarization of macrophages were observed. The M2 polarization marker arginase 1 (Arg-1) was measured by western blotting. The related control groups were untreated cells, CUR delivery only and co-delivery of CUR and miRNA negative control. Results The (CUR@MSN)PEI/siRNA co-delivery system was successfully formulated. The nanoparticles exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity, and the cell viability was maintained over 90% when the nanoparticle concentration was less than 10 μg/mL. A high cell uptake efficiency was observed, and the target gene knockdown efficiency was greater than 80% (P < 0.05 vs. all the other groups). The CUR delivery-only group and co-delivery of the CUR-and miRNA-negative control group improved Arg-1 expression ~ 3-fold (P < 0.05 vs. untreated cells). Using the co-delivery of CUR and ASO, synergistic effects were obtained, and Arg-1 expression was increased ~ 8-fold (P < 0.05 vs. all the other groups). Conclusion The CUR-siRNA co-delivery system can effectively transfect macrophages and synergistically induce M2 polarization.
Objective To explore the antibacterial activity of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on P. gingivalis and the inhibitory effects on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) production induced by P. gingivalis. Methods The antimicrobial effect of EGCG against planktonic cultures and biofilms of P. gingivalis was evaluated using microplate dilution assays. The microstructural changes in biofilms were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The inhibitory effect of EGCG on arginine gingipain (Rgp) and lysine gingipain (Kgp) activity of P. gingivalis was evaluated using synthetic chromogenic peptides and fluorogenic substrates. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and qRT-PCR analysis were used to assess MMP-1 and MMP-2 mRNA expression and secretion by human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) stimulated with P. gingivalis in the presence or absence of EGCG, respectively. Results The MIC and MBC of EGCG against P. gingivalis were 62.5 μg/mL and 500 μg/mL, respectively. EGCG can not only inhibit the biofilm formation of P. gingivalis but also has a scavenging effect on mature biofilms and can affect their viability. Additionally, 10 μg/mL and 50 μg/mL of EGCG inhibited the proteinase activities of Rgp and Kgp, respectively (P < 0.05). Finally, the mRNA expression and secretion of MMP-1 and MMP-2 by HGFs stimulated by P. gingivalis were significantly inhibited by 50 μg/mL of EGCG (P < 0.05). Conclusion EGCG exhibits antimicrobial effects against P. gingivalis and reduces the expression of MMPs by HGFs.
Objective To analyze the accuracy of the infiltrating depth of tongue squamous cell carcinoma measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using pathological sections under a light microscope to provide a clinical reference. Methods Seventy-three patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma who visited the Department of Stomatology of the First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University and Xiangya Stomatological Hospital from January 2018 to September 2020 were selected. Preoperative MRI was performed to evaluate the infiltration depth of tongue squamous cell carcinoma, and intraoperative frozen pathological sections were used to confirm the infiltration depth of tongue squamous cell carcinoma measurement. Results The infiltration depth of tongue squamous cell carcinoma measured by T1-weighted imaging was 1.11 mm (95% CI=0.51-1.70; t=3.72; P < 0.001), and the correlation coefficient r was 0.95. The T2-weighted average overestimation was 2.17 mm (95% CI=1.32-3.02; t=5.10; P < 0.001), and the correlation coefficient was 0.92. The Bland-Altman plot showed good consistency between T1- and T2-weighted images and pathologic measurements. Conclusion The infiltration depth of tongue squamous cell carcinoma measured by MRI is more accurate, with an average overestimation of 1-2 mm compared with pathological measurements, and T1-weighted images are better than T2-weighted images.
Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of anterolateral thigh flap(ALTF) repair on postoperative soft tissue defects in oral malignant tumors. Methods The clinical data of 136 oral malignant tumor patients at the Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital from June 2017 to February 2019 were collected. All the patients had undergone enlarged tumor resection, and the defects were repaired simultaneously by ALTF. The flap survival rate and occurrence of postoperative complications were analyzed, and related functions were evaluated. Results The flap survival rate was 97.1% (132/136). Diabetes and the operation time were related to inactivation of the anterolateral thigh flap (P < 0.05). Fifty-three patients (40.0%) had systemic complications, and 38 patients (27.9%) had complications in the operation area, among which the pulmonary infection rate was the highest (28.6%). One year after the operation, 52 patients (38.2%) scored 10 points in language function evaluation. The mouth opening score of 58 patients (42.6%) was 10 points, and the swallowing function score of 82 patients (60.3%) was 10 points. Conclusion ALTF is an ideal free flap to repair soft tissue defects in oral and maxillofacial malignant tumors after resection, with a high survival rate, small donor injury and good postoperative recovery of relevant functions.
Ideal osseointegration is intimately related to favorable osteoimmune properties around dental implants. An increasing number of in vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway is involved in this biological process. In this article, the implicated roles of Hippo-YAP the signaling axis in peri-implant osteoimmunology were summarized by reviewing relevant evolving literature. The discrepancy concerning the Hippo-YAP signaling regulatory effect on osteogenesis and polarization direction were analyzed as well as propose the potential mechanism, which may be caused by the maturation of osteogenesis-related cells and heterogeneity of macrophages. More attention should be given to the requirements of promoting osteogenesis and patterns of regulating the immune microenvironment by Hippo-YAP in future studies.
Orthodontic tooth movement is a complex physiological process based on periodontal tissue remodeling. Numerous factors, such as the anatomical characteristics of oral and maxillofacial complications, occlusal interference, mechanical factors and systematic factors, may play critical roles in orthodontic tooth movement, leading to tooth movement difficulty. In recent years, many scholars have focused on factors related to tooth movement difficulty, but current research mostly involves animal experiments and retrospective studies. Clinical trials of high-quality and evidence-based medicine studies are required. Although no sound theory system is available that is universally recognized and the mechanism of many factors remains debatable, alveolar bone defects, the maxillary sinus, the gingiva, tooth ankylosis, bone islands and friction may cause orthodontic tooth movement. Understanding the factors related to the difficulty of orthodontic tooth movement is advantageous to develop a more comprehensive personalized treatment plan for patients and achieve more efficient and safer tooth movement. In this paper, the current factors related to orthodontic tooth movement are reviewed to provide references for clinical orthodontic treatment.
Periodontitis is closely related to many systemic diseases. Cancer of the digestive system is a common malignant tumor. Increasing evidence has shown that periodontitis is related to various digestive system cancers. This review summarizes the current research on the relationship between periodontitis and esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, and colorectal cancer and analyzes the possible mechanisms, including via microorganisms, immunity, inflammation, and genes. The content of periodontal pathogens and Helicobacter pylori in the mouth of patients with periodontitis is increased, with the secretion of many virulence factors and pathogenic enzymes and inhibition or evasion of the host’s non-specific immune function, making the digestive system organs connected to the oral cavity more vulnerable to cancer cell invasion. The plasma levels of interleukin-1β(IL-1β) , interleukin-6(IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in patients with periodontitis and digestive system cancers are increased. These elevated factors promote the occurrence and development of cancer by activating endothelial cells, increasing the expression of adhesion molecules and inducing the production of matrix metalloproteinases. Additionally, formyl peptide receptors involved in the inflammatory response and NF-κB, as therapeutic targets of periodontitis, are associated with many cancers, but the mechanism is unclear. Periodontal health is considered a breakthrough point to provide a reference for the prevention and treatment of patients with these three common cancers of the digestive system.
Er: YAG laser bleaching is a new tooth bleaching method compared with traditional bleaching technology. The Er: YAG laser significantly improves the bleaching efficiency, has the advantages of high safety, short treatment time and excellent bleaching effect and is widely used in clinical operations. This paper summarizes the working principle and bleaching characteristics of Er: YAG laser bleaching technology and its effect on tooth structure. The existing literature suggests that the high absorption of water and hydroxyapatite by the Er: YAG laser makes it work well on water-bearing tissues and dental tissues. When it is absorbed by the bleaching agent on the tooth surface, it accelerates the catalytic oxidation-reduction reaction and selectively acts on the pigment particles deposited on the tooth, thereby achieving the effect of tooth bleaching. Er: YAG laser bleaching can be applied to most discolored teeth. The bleaching process is rapid and effective. During the bleaching process, for the dental pulp tissue, the temperature of the pulp cavity is lower than the critical value of 5.6 ℃, causing no pathological damage to the dental pulp tissue. For the hard tissues of the teeth, laser irradiation will cause changes in the chemical composition of calcium and phosphorus. The enamel presents a unique lava-like shape, and the bonding strength of the tooth increases after bleaching. Compared with other lasers, the Er: YAG laser has a wavelength close to the peak of water, and adding other ingredients to the bleaching agent is not required. Almost all the energy is used for the bleaching agent, with no damage to the surrounding tissues.
Dental bonding technology and materials have been used widely in dentistry because of their excellent properties. The development of novel bonding technology and materials is constantly being performed to improve the effect of dental bonding restorations. Observation and analysis of the dental bonding interface is one of the most important methods for laboratory evaluation of bonding efficiency. This paper aims to review the methods of observation and analysis of dental bonding interfaces to provide a reference for the selection of evaluation methods in dental bonding research. The features of 6 methods, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), Raman spectroscopy (RS), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), were described and summarized. Among these methods, SEM and TEM are used most often in the analysis of fine structures; CLSM and OCT are used for the acquisition of characteristic image signals, such as microleakage and exogenous and endogenous fluorescence; and RS and AFM can test chemical composition and mechanical properties.