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Table of Content

    20 July 2016, Volume 24 Issue 7
    Expert Forum
    The actual state and future of psychological research correlated with cleft lip and/or palate
    Bing SHI,Pin HA
    2016, 24(7):  381-385.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.07.001
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    Nowadays, as the cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) treatment approach is progressing rapidly, non-surgical treatment parts draw more and more extra attention. The psychosocial condition of patients with CLP is becoming an important issue in eyes of medical team, patients themselves, and patients' family members. A higher goal of treatment for CLP is to improve quality of life of patients and their family members, by progressing each step of treatment approach continuously according to assessment of patients and parents' psychosocial outcomes. However, study on this issue is rare and inadequate, especially in our country. There is no mature assessment tool. The mechanism of forming a certain psychosocial condition and the patients' long term psychological changing patent are not clear. This review examined the published scientific research on the psychosocial condition of patients with CLP, hoping to summarize the history and actuality of research, and to provide some suggestions and assumptions on this field.

    Special Articles
    Reconstruction of defects with supraclavicular artery island flap following ablation of tongue squamous cell carcinoma
    Xiao-zhi LÜ,Ting-ru SHAO,Meng ZHAO
    2016, 24(7):  386-389.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.07.002
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    Objective To explore the clinical results of reconstruction the defects with the supraclavicular artery island flap (SCAIF) following ablation of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC).Methods Retrospective analysis was carried out with twelve patients with TSCC who underwent the reconstruction of postoperative defects with SCAIF. Outcome evaluation including location of the defect, flap size and viability, postoperative appearance and function, and complications was evaluated.Results 11 of 12 flaps survived and healed by first intention. Partial skin flap necrosis occurred in 1 patient. All donor site incisions healed by first intention. There was no obvious complication in any patient. The patients underwent followed-up for 6 months and satisfied with their shape and oral function after operation. Conclusion The SCAIF is safe and reliable with minimal donor-site morbidity, which can potentially restore the tongue function and improve quality of life in patients with TSCC.

    Basic Study
    Effects of LMK-235 on osteoblast/odontoblast differentiation in hPDLCs
    Qian-qian HAN,Zhao LIU,Li JIANG,Hui-yi TANG,Xiao-na LI
    2016, 24(7):  390-394.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.07.003
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    Objective To investigate the effects of type Ⅱa histone deacetylase inhibitor LMK-235 during early osteoblast/odontoblast differentiation in hPDLCs.Methods hPDLCs were obtained by the collagenase digestion method. hPDLCs at the 3 rd passage were treated with medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum mixed with different concentrations of LMK-235 (0, 50, 100, 250, 500 nmol/L), respectively. Proliferative capability of hPDLCs was tested by MTT and qRT-PCR was used to detect mRNA expression levels of Runx2, ALP and DMP-1 3 d later. Results MTT assay showed that cell proliferation in hPDLCs treated with 100 nmol/L LMK-235 was increased significantly compared with the control group (P<0.05). The expression of Runx2 mRNA in the 100 nmol/L group was 1.77 times of the control groups (P<0.05). The expressions of ALP mRNA in all the experimental groups were significantly higher than that in control groups (P<0.05), and the expression in the 100 nmol/L groups was the highest. The expressions of DMP-1 mRNA in the 50 and 100 nmol/L groups were higher than the control groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Type Ⅱa histone deacetylase inhibitor LMK-235 could accelerate cell proliferation in hPDLCs at the concentration of 100 nmol/L, and regulate early osteoblast/odontoblast differentiation by upregulating the mRNA expressions of Runx2, ALP and DMP-1.

    Study on the differences of reconstructive periodontium by stem cell sheets and normal periodontium under the orthodontic force
    Qiong WU,Zuo-lin JIN,Xin LI,Li-ying WANG,Jia LIU
    2016, 24(7):  395-401.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.07.004
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    Objective To discuss the feasibility of orthodontic treatment for regenerated periodontal tissues by comparing the difference of tooth movement under orthodontic forces between the normal periodontal tissues and the reconstructed periodontal tissues by the composite cell sheets of dental follicle cells (DFCs) and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs).Methods Six adult male beagles were selected for experiment animals. The first premolar in all four quadrants of each beagle were extracted and a bone defect were made in the same size (4 mm × 4 mm × 4 mm) distal to the extraction sockets. The upper left and the lower right quadrants were divided into the regeneration group by transplantation of the composite cell sheets while the upper right and lower left quadrants were control group without transplantation. 12 weeks after transplantation, the orthodontic forces were introduced to move the second premolar mesially with a force value 150 g. Measurements were done after 4 weeks of traction to record the movement of the tooth. And compare the difference between the regeneration group and control group by the statistical analysis.Results DFCs/PDLSCs composite cell sheets repaired the periodontaltissue and formed the typical alveolar bone-periodontal membrane-cementum structurewhich shows good histological characteristics. experimental group and control group show no statistical difference in the rate of tooth movement (P > 0.05). Conclusion The periodontal tissues regenerated by this kind of the composite cell sheet showed a good response to mechanical stimulation.

    Study on design and manufacturing technology of titanium mandible custom-fitting surgical guides
    Hong HUANG,Gong ZHANG,Zhong-kai PENG,Ya SHENG,Peng ZHANG,Da-hong HUANG
    2016, 24(7):  402-406.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.07.005
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    Objective To explore the technology of combination with computed tomography (CT), computer aided design (CAD), finite element analysis (FEA), and Selective Laser Melting (SLM) in manufacturing a titanium custom-fitting surgical guide well matched with the patient mandible in order to realize mold-free manufacturing. Methods A model of a custom-fitting surgical guide was built by CT scanning machine and Solidworks software, and then the model was imported into Ansys software to carry out simulation analysis with nonlinear contact method. Finally, the model above was imported to SLM molding equipment, the titanium custom-fitting surgical guide was proposed via titanium powder melted with layer by layer using a high-speed scanning galvanometer. Results The maximum equivalent stress of the mandible and surgical guide was distributed uniformly and reasonably, the titanium custom-fitting surgical guides formed by SLM molding equipment provided high accuracy and high density. Conclusion The combination of CT, CAD, FEA, SLM technology can fulfill mold-free manufacturing of surgical guides and the manufacturing cycle is shorten as well.

    Evaluation of apical sealing ability with different obturation techniques in oval-root canals in vitro
    Qin YANG,Fang-li TONG,Ming YANG,Cai-ying LIANG,Pei-yan YUAN
    2016, 24(7):  407-410.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.07.006
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    Objective To evaluate the apical sealing ability of different obturationtechniques in oval-root canals.Methods After root canals shaping with Mtwo instruments, 42 premolars with oval-root canals were randomly divided into 3 groups of 14 teeth each. Group A wereobturated by single-cone technique. Group B were obturated by modified continuous wave condensation technique. Group A were obturated by lateral condensation. IRoot SP was used as root canal sealer in all groups. The apical leakage was evaluated by dye penetration method and transparent teeth technique.Results Mean depth of leakage was (1.34 ± 0.33) mm for group A, (0.84 ± 0.40) mm for group B and (1.13 ± 0.33) mm for group C. There was significant difference between group A and group B (P = 0.004). while no significant difference was found between group A and group C (P = 0.198), group C and group C (P = 0.072). Conclusion The oval-root canalobturated withmodified continuous wave condensation withiRoot SP as sealercan get a goodapical sealing ability.

    Cinical Study
    A clinical research on the face type and double occlusal plane level change in Angle’s Class Ⅱ, division 2 patients before and after treatment
    Liao ZHANG,Ying LIU
    2016, 24(7):  411-415.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.07.007
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    Objective To evaluate the change of the the face type and the cant of the occlusal plane of the patients with Angle ClassⅡ, division 2 before and after orthodontic treatment, in order provide evidence for clinical treatment.Methods In 30 patients with Angle ClassⅡ, division 2, 4 first premolars were extracted. They were treated with straight wire appliance. Pre-treatment and post-treatment lateral cephalograms of the patients were obtained and evaluated. Seven parameters including AOP-FH, POP-FH, OP-dif, MP-FH, N-Me, N-ANS, ANS-Me were selected and analyzed.Results There were significant differences in AOP-FH, N-Me, POP-FH and ANS-Me (P < 0.05), while there were no significant differences in other parameters. Conclusion After the straight wire appliance treatment forAngle Class Ⅱ division 2 patients, heights of 1/3 lower face increases, both anterior and posterior occlusal plane decreases, especially the anterior occlusal plane.

    Use cervical vertebra bone age to evaluate the development situation of unilateral complete cleft lip and palate patients
    Na JIN,Cun-hui FAN,Tao XU,Li-xia YANG,Hong-yang WANG,Xue-fang ZHAO
    2016, 24(7):  416-419.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.07.008
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    Objective Use cervical vertebra bone age to assess the development situation of the patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCLP).Methods A total of 45 UCLP patients aged 9 to 16 years were selected as experimental group. Another 45 patients of the same age and race without cleft lip and palate were selected as control group. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken for the patients. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were used to measure and calculate vertebra bone of the UCLP group and the Non-cleft group. Independent samples t test was used to compare bone age of UCLP group and the Non-cleft group in same gender.Results Cervical vertebra bone age of male patients in UCLP group was significantly smaller than patients in the Non-cleft group (P < 0.05), while cervical vertebra bone age of female patients shows no significant difference between two groups (P > 0.05).Conclusion Compared with Non-cleft patients, the male UCLP patients' development is relatively slow. And there is no significant difference between the female patients in two groups.

    Research on clinical application of two different eruption blocking appliances
    Min CHENG,Ting-ting CHEN,Jian-wei CHEN,Xiang CHEN,Qiang ZHANG
    2016, 24(7):  420-423.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.07.009
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    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy in patients treated with two different eruption blocking appliances.Methods Totally 40 children (21 boys, 19 girls), aged 6.5-8.5 years old, having premature eruption of permanent tooth were randomly divided into 2 groups,with 20 cases in each group: group A (wearing traditional band and loop appliance of eruption blocking during the whole day) and group B(wearing modified band and loop appliance of eruption blocking during the whole day). The patients had regular check every 3 months until the root of premature premolar developed 1/2. The efficacy of the two appliances was evaluated on the following aspects: space maintenance, losing ratio of bands, tooth mobility and prevalence of dental caries of the premolars.Results The efficacy on space maintaining and eruption impaction were not statistically different (P > 0.05), but prevalence of dental caries of the teeth in group A was higher than that of group B (P < 0.05). Conclusion The modified band and loop appliance of eruption blocking is effective and good for tooth health.

    Evaluation of the value of micro screw implant anchorage in adult patients with bimaxillary protrusion
    Hong-juan HAN,Hao WU,Xiao-hua REN,Fei HUANG
    2016, 24(7):  424-427.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.07.010
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    Objective To explore the clinical application of micro screw implant anchorage in orthodontic treatment of patients with bimaxillary protrusion.Methods A total of 62 cases of orthodontic treatment for adult patients with bimaxillary protrusion deformity were divided into micro screw implant anchorage group (group A, 27 cases) and extraoral anchorage group (group B, 35 cases) according to the different treatment methods.Results The orthodontic treatment time in group A was significantly shorter than that in group B (P < 0.05). The difference of upper lip protrusion, lower lip protrusion, upper lip-E line, lower lip-E line and lip gap before and after the treatment in group A were higher than those in group B (P < 0.05). The difference of the upper incisors protrusion, lower incisors protrusion, the upper central incisors angle, the lower central incisors angle, upper alveolar protrusion and lower alveolar protrusion before and after treatment in group A were greater than those in group B (P < 0.05). Conclusion Micro screw implant anchorage provides satisfactory antitumor effect in orthodontic treatment of patients with bimaxillary protrusion than extraoral anchorage, it is worth in the clinical application.

    Esthetic perception of female maxillary central incisor and lateral incisor gingival margin asymmetries for orthodontic patients
    Fang CAO,Li-xia WU,Zhen WANG
    2016, 24(7):  428-430.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.07.011
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    Objective To investigate the esthetic perceptions of female maxillary central incisor and lateral incisor gingival margin asymmetries for orthodontic patients.Methods Female maxillary central incisor and lateral incisor gingival margin asymmetries models were set up. The distance from the gingival margin of the center incisor and lateral incisor to the incisor edge was set as 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, 1.5 mm and 2.0 mm. A questionnaire was designed to investigate the esthetic perceptions of gingival margin asymmetries.Results In general, the most attractive smiles for the orthodontic patients were the ones without asymmetries or with a 0.5-1.0 mm asymmetry (P < 0.05). The patients could be initiated the difference by an asymmetry of 1.0 mm, and the asymmetries with 1.5-2.0 mm were not acceptable for anesthetics (P < 0.05). Conclusion The perceptions of anesthetic asymmetries in the gingival margin levels of the female maxillary central incisor and lateral incisor gingival margin were 1.0-1.5 mm, and this statics is somewhat clinically instructive.

    Clinical study of large maxillary cystic lesions treated by decompression
    Bo-you LI,Ming-yang SU,Yang LI,Xuan LIN,Xi-feng WU,Yong-bo GAO
    2016, 24(7):  431-434.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.07.012
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    Objective To evaluate the effects of decompression in treating large maxillary cystic lesions.Methods 25 cases of large maxillary cystic lesions were performed decompression during Oct. 2007-Oct. 2014. According to the clinical and radiological examination, morphology of maxillary sinus and cyst cavity were observed.Results 12 cases of radicular cysts, 10 cases of dentigerous cysts, and 3 cases of keratocystic odontogenic tumor were diagnosed according to pathological examination. The appearance of the maxillary sinus were completely restored and the cyst disappeared totally in 7 cases after the first 3 months, and then after the next 9-12 months, the other 18 cases had the appearance of maxillary sinus completely or basically restored with a following enucleation of cysts. All patients were followed up for 1-5 years, and no recurrence was observed. Conclusion To treat large maxillary cystic lesions by decompression is effective to conserve the morphology and function of maxillary sinus, and it is a simple surgical approach with less damage and complications.

    Prevention and Treatment Practice
    The roots relative fused teeth of left maxillary first molar and second molar: a case report
    Ji-dong ZHANG,Hong-yuan WANG,Ai-qing LIU,Qing-bin YU
    2016, 24(7):  435-436.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.07.013
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    Fused teeth are one of the development abnormalities in tooth morphology which mainly occurred in the anterior teeth area and relatively rare in the posterior area. This paper reports one case of maxillary first molar and second molar tooth relative fusion, which provide reference for the clinical treatment of patients.

    Review Articles
    Research progress of Nme gene family and its application in oral squamous cell carcinoma
    Jia-peng LIU,Zhen WANG,Si-ming XIE
    2016, 24(7):  437-440.  DOI: 10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2016.07.014
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    The Nme (neoplasm metastasis) gene family was previously known as the nm23 (non-metastatic 23) gene family. The nm23 gene was the earliest tumor metastasis suppressor gene discovered by Steeg in 1988. All products of the 10 members (Nme1-Nme10) discovered so far of the gene family have a nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) active structure. Proteins encoded by the Nme gene family participate in processes including cellular differentiation, development, metabolism and signal transduction,and play an important role in the development of carcinoma. The Nme1 and Nme2 have been subjects of most relevant studies which show that the Nme1 isclosely associated with cellular differentiation and metastasis suppressor function in tumor. This paper provides an overview of studies in recent years on the Nme(nm23) gene family in oral squamous cell carcinomas.