20 June 2022, Volume 30 Issue 6
    

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    Basic Study
  • ZHOU Wenkai, WANG Jiaxuan, WANG Yuanfeng, CHEN Meng, TAO Xingru, LIU Zheqi, ZHANG Xu, JI Tong, CAO Wei
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases. 2022, 30(6): 381-389. https://doi.org/10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.06.001
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    Objective To investigate the role of long non-coding RNA double homeobox A pseudogene 9 (DUXAP9) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and to evaluate the expression level, molecular function and mechanism of DUXAP9 in HNSCC cells. Methods Differential expression of lncRNAs between normal and tumor tissues in HNSCC tissues were screened using lncRNA microarray, the expression level of DUXAP9 in HNSCC tissues and its relationship with prognosis were analyzed in the TCGA database. The expression levels of DUXAP9 in HNSCC tissues and cell lines were detected using qRT-PCR. The function in HNSCC cells after DUXAP9 silencing was evaluated using the CCK-8 assay, wound healing assay, Transwell migration assay and subcutaneous xenograft assay in nude mice. Changes in the transcription and translation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells after DUXAP9 silencing were detected using qRT-PCR and Western blot. Results lncRNA microarray results showed that, compared to adjacent normal tissues, DUXAP9 was abnormally upregulated in HNSCC tissues. Analysis from TCGA database showed that, compared to HNSCC patients with low DUXAP9 expression, HNSCC patients with high DUXAP9 expression had poorer survival. The relative expression of DUXAP9 in HNSCC tissues and 4 HNSCC cell lines increased compared to paired adjacent normal tissues as detected using qRT-PCR. Silencing DUXAP9 significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and expression of EMT-related genes in HNSCC cells. The silencing of DUXAP9 significantly inhibited subcutaneous tumorigenesis of the HNSCC cell line CAL27 in nude mice. Conclusion Silencing DUXAP9 significantly inhibited the proliferation of HNSCC cells and subcutaneous xenografts in nude mice. DUXAP9 may mediate the migration of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells via the EMT pathway.

  • YANG Weizhe, HAN Xiangzhen, ZHENG Meijie, ZHOU Qiqi, HE Huiyu
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases. 2022, 30(6): 390-397. https://doi.org/10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.06.002
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    Objective To investigate the effects of over expression and low expression of antisense transcripts of circular RNA cerebellar degeneration associated protein 1 (CDR1as) in Balb/C mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on factors related to osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Methods BMSCs were cultured and identified in vitro. The lentiviral (LV) vector containing the overexpressed and silenced circRNA CDR1as genes and the control lentivirus were respectively transfected into mouse BMSCs, and stable cell lines were screened. The cells were divided into the circRNACDR1as over expression group and the over expression control group, and the CircRNACDR1as low expression group and the low expression control group. The components were stained with Alizarin Red S and alkaline phosphatase after 14 and 21 days of osteoinduction; qRT-PCR was used to detect the target genes circRNA CDR1as, osteogenic differentiation markers alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt- related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN), osterix(Osx), collagen I (COL-1), and the mRNA expression levels of vascular endothelial grown factor (VEGF) and angiogenin-1 (Ang-1). Results The results of alizarin red staining and alkaline phosphatase staining showed that the extracellular matrix calcium precipitation and ALP staining area of the over expression experimental group was greater than its control group, and those of the low expression experimental group was less than its control group. As the number of days of osteogenic induction increased, the calcium precipitation and ALP staining in each group also increased. RT-PCR results showed that the mRNA expression levels of circRNA CDR1as, ALP, RUNX2, OCN, OPN, OSX, COL-1, VEGF and Ang-1 in the over expression experimental group BMSCs were significantly increased (P<0.001). In the low expression experimental group, the mRNA expression levels of circRNA CDR1as, ALP, RUNX2, OCN, OPN, OSX, COL-1, VEGF and Ang-1 in BMSCs were significantly reduced (P<0.001). Conclusion Over expression of the circRNA CDR1as gene promotes the osteogenic differentiation and angiogenesis of BMSCs. Low expression of the circRNA CDR1as gene inhibits the osteogenic differentiation and angiogenesis of BMSCs.

  • ZHOU Qiyue, HONG Gaoying, WU Tong, CHEN Chen, XIE Haifeng
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases. 2022, 30(6): 398-405. https://doi.org/10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.06.003
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    Objective To compare the efficiency and biocompatibility of four different silanes on immobilizing c(RGDfK) peptide on titanium surface. Methods After alkali-heat treatment (group OH), the titanium surface was treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) (group OHAP), 3-chloropropyltriethoxysilane (CPTES) (group OHCP) (3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) (group OHMPT) and 3-isobutyryloxy propyltrimethoxysilane(γ- MPS) (group OHMPS) to immobilize the c(RGDfK) cyclic peptide and constructa titanium-silane-c(RGDfK) coating. The NT group was the blank control group. The surface morphology and wettability of the coatings were detected using scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurement. The elemental composition of the titanium surface was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. After fluorescent staining with 4’,6-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and phalloidin, the adhesion of mouse preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells on the surface of the materials was observed using laser confocal microscopy. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assays were used to evaluate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells on the surface of the materials, respectively. Results Scanning electron microscope observation showed a spongy-like 3-dimensional network formed on the titanium surface after alkali-heat treatment with silane-c(RGDfK) coating adhesion. The wettability of each group was greatly improved compared to the untreated titanium surface. The element ratios of Si/Ti and amide-N/Ti in the OHMPS group were the highest. The OHAP group exhibited the best cell adhesion effect. The cell proliferation and ALP activity of the OHAP, OHMPT, and OHMPS groups were significantly higher than the control group (P <0.05); there was no statistical difference between the OHCP group and the control group. Conclusion MPTS, CPTES and γ-MPS covalently immobilized cyclic peptide c(RGDfK) on the titanium surface, which promoted adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Theγ-MPS conjugated C (RGDfK)cyclic peptide exhibited the best effect. MPTS, CPTES and γ-MPS coupled with c(RGDfK) cyclic peptides had similar biological properties.

  • GU Yue, LIU Na, WANG Jianing, ZHANG Lifang, LIU Qing
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases. 2022, 30(6): 406-411. https://doi.org/10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.06.004
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    Objective To establish a mouse model of acute pseudomembranous stomatitis and to observe the effect of photoactivated disinfection (PAD) on the removal of Candida albicans in vivo, and initially explore the feasibility of this technology in the treatment of acute pseudomembranous stomatitis. Methods Six-week-old male ICR mice were selected and immunized with 1 × 107CFU/mL Candida albicans solution on the backs of the tongues of immunosuppressed mice. Thirty model mice with acute pseudomembranous stomatitis were successfully established and randomly divided into a control group and a photoactivated disinfection group, with 15 mice in each group. Mice in the photoactivated disinfection group were coated with 1 mg/mL toluidine blue solution on the back of the tongue, incubated for 1 min and irradiated with 750 mW LED red light for 1 min. Immediately after treatment, the tongue fungal load was measured in the photoactivated disinfection group and the control group. Tongue fungal load was measured again 48 h later, and tongue histopathological examination was performed in both groups. Results Forty-eight hours after PAD treatment, the white pseudomembrane on the back of the tongue in the photoactivated group was significantly less than the control group. The fungal load on the dorsum of the tongue in the treatment group was significantly lower than the control group immediately and 48 h after treatment for PAD, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Forty-eight hours after PAD treatment, HE staining showed that the epithelial structure of the PAD group was more regular than the control group, and no microabscesses were observed. PAS staining showed that the number of mycelia in the PAD group was significantly less than the control group. Mycelia occasionally invaded the keratinized layer but did not penetrate into the upper cortex. Conclusion PAD significantly removed Candida albicans from the tongues of mice with acute pseudomembranous Candida stomatitis.

  • Clinical Study
  • LI Xiao, WANG Lianfei, CHENG Gang
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases. 2022, 30(6): 412-418. https://doi.org/10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.06.005
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    Objective To evaluate the osteogenic effect of concentrated growth factor (CGF) combined with deproteinated bovine bone mineral (DBBM) in site preservation using clinical and histomorphometric observations. Methods A total of 26 patients who needed extraction of affected teeth and received staged implantation after site preservation were selected. The patients were randomly divided into the DBBM group (Bio-Oss was implanted simultaneously after extraction) and CGF+DBBM group (CGF+Bio-Oss was implanted simultaneously after extraction), with 13 patients in each group, and both groups were covered with Bio-Gide collagen membrane. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed preoperatively and 6 months later to measure the changes in alveolar bone height and width, and the bone specimens were drilled 6 months after site preservation during implant surgery for histological analyses. Results CBCT showed that the height and width of alveolar bone were absorbed 6 months after site preservation in the CGF+DBBM and DBBM groups, and the reduction in alveolar ridge width in the CGF+DBBM group was statistically less than the DBBM group (P <0.05). The histomorphometry results showed that the percentage of new bone in the CGF+DBBM and DBBM groups were 35.30% ± 3.56% and 26.38% ± 5.04%, respectively, and the amount of new bone in the CGF+DBBM group was statistically higher than the DBBM group (P<0.05). Conclusion CGF combined with DBBM is superior to DBBM in maintaining the alveolar bone volume and shape in site preservation, which creates favorable conditions for implant restoration.

  • TANG Li, HE Dongming, LIU Yao, LIU Hanghang, ZHU Zhaokun, TAI Yue, LUO En
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases. 2022, 30(6): 419-426. https://doi.org/10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.06.006
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    Objective To establish a three-dimensional coordinate system that can accurately measure the recurrence rate after orthognathic surgery, and evaluate and analyze the degree of recurrence. Methods Data from patients who underwent orthognathic surgery in a hospital were selected to reconstruct three-dimensional images with spiral CT. The two researchers used the multiplane assisted positioning method to fix the points three times and screened them using intra-andintreclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Reproducible and accurate landmark points were drawn to establish different coordinate systems and calculate the facial asymmetry index (AI) to determine the coordinate system with the best mid-sagittal plane symmetry. This coordinate system and lateral radiographs were used to separately measure the recurrence rate, and evaluate and analyze the three-dimensional recurrence degree of orthognathic surgery. Results Ten landmark points that may be repeatedly fixed were obtained, including N (nasion), K (K point), ANS(anterior nasal spine), PNS (posterior nasal spine), Ptm(pterygomaxillary fissure), Gn (gnathion), IZ(IZ point), MZ (MZ point), Ms (mastoideale), Cor (coronion) and and Go (gonion). Three coordinate systems were established, and the most suitable coordinate system was the upper edge point of the left infraorbital foramen. The inner upper edge of the right infraorbital foramen and both sides of the midpoint of the ear points constituted the horizontal plane (HP), which passed through the outermost point of the left zygomatic frontal suture and the outermost point of the right zygomatic frontal suture and was perpendicular to the horizontal plane to constitute the coronal plane (CP). It was perpendicular to the two planes to form a sagittal plane (SP). Two-dimensional and three-dimensional measurements of recurrence were performed on 112 patients, and new three-dimensional recurrence evaluation results were obtained. Less than 40% had low recurrence, 40% to 61% had moderate recurrence, and greater than 61% had high recurrence. Conclusion This study established a three-dimensional coordinate system suitable for measuring the recurrence rate after orthognathic surgery, obtained a new three-dimensional recurrence evaluation result, and provided a clinical experimental basis for evaluating the effect of orthognathic surgery and improving stability.

  • LIU Bing, WANG Peijuan, ZHANG Yaqiu, FENG Caihua, WANG Jun, ZHANG Hui
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases. 2022, 30(6): 427-432. https://doi.org/10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.06.007
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    Objective To investigate the efficacy of a holistic approach for postoperative pain management in children receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia in day-surgery operating room. Methods A total of 120 children, aged 3-7 years, of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Ⅰ or Ⅱ, with ≥ 10 treated teeth, receiving comprehensive dental treatment under general anesthesia from January 2020 to August 2020 were enrolled in this trial and randomly allocated into the holistic approach group (group H, n=60) and including preemptive analgesia, instructions to parents for pain management and web-based assessment system (assessment pain by scanning the quick response code 4, 6, and 24 hours postoperatively) and the control group (group C, n=60) only scanning the quick response code. Pain, face, legs, activity, cry and consolability (FLACC) scale was used to assess the level of pain 2 h postoperatively and the parents postoperative pain measure (PPPM) was used to assess the level of pain 4, 6, and 24 h postoperatively in two groups. Results The FLACC scores of group H 2 h postoperatively were significantly lower than group C (P <0.05). The incidences of significant pain (PPPM scores ≥ 6) 4, 6 and 24 h postoperatively in group H were lower than group C (P <0.05). Altogether, 91.7% of parents in group H and 71.6% in group C assessed the level of pain of children over time. The compliance rate of parents in group H was significantly higher than group C (P <0.05). Conclusion The holistic approach had a positive effect on reducing postoperative pain for children receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia in the day-surgery operating room.

  • Review Articles
  • SHI Binmian, XIE Xudong, WANG Jun
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases. 2022, 30(6): 433-437. https://doi.org/10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.06.008
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    As a highly conserved signal pathway in evolution, the WNT signaling pathway plays an essential role in periodontium growth, development and injury repair. The Axin-associated protein Axin2 is a direct effector molecule of the WNT signaling pathway and labels WNT-responsive cells well. Studies have shown that Axin2-positive (Axin2+) cells in the periodontium have the potential for self-renewal, replication and multidirectional differentiation. This article reviews the temporal and spatial distribution of Axin2+ cells in periodontal tissue development and the role and regulatory mechanism of Axin2+ cells in periodontal tissue development, regeneration and tissue remodeling to provide new ideas for periodontal tissue regeneration. The literature review showed that Axin2+ cells were the main cell source of periodontium development, and Axin2+ cells played essential roles in tooth extraction socket healing, implant osseointegration, periodontal tissue remodeling and junctional epithelium regeneration. The function of Axin2+ cells was positively regulated by the canonical WNT signaling pathway. However, the regulatory mechanisms of other signaling pathways on Axin2+ cells remain to be elucidated.

  • SONG Sixing, ZHAO Lei, XIAO Shimeng
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases. 2022, 30(6): 438-442. https://doi.org/10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.06.009
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    Gingival pigmentation(GP) manifests as dark pigmentation spots, such as black or brown spots, in the gums. It is mostly caused by the deposition of melanin particles secreted by melanocytes on the gingival epithelium. The influencing factors may be divided into two categories, exogenous and endogenous. Exogenous factors include heavy metals, tattoos, smoking or drug use, and endogenous factors are related to certain diseases. The clinical grading of GP helps make a reasonable assessment of the necessity of treatment and prognosis. The Dummett-Gupta oral pigmentation index is a commonly used grading method, and the new grading method formed by combining the etiology and clinical manifestations described the patient’s situation more comprehensively. It is necessary to ask for a detailed medical history, complete examination, and correctly differentiate between physiological GP and GP caused by pathological state. Laser treatment is the currenttreatment with a better treatment effect and higher patient acceptance, and it is more comfortable and convenient, including diode laser, Er: YAG laser, and Nd: YAG laser, etc. This article summarizes the formation factors, clinical manifestations and treatment methods of GP to provide ideas for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of GP.

  • LUO Ting, YAN Jiarong, HUA Fang, HE Hong
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases. 2022, 30(6): 443-448. https://doi.org/10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.06.010
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    Enamel demineralization is one of the most common adverse reactions to orthodontic treatment. The existence of orthodontic appliances affects oral hygiene maintenance, which easily leads to plaque accumulation and oral flora dysbiosis, and cariogenic bacteria produce acid to cause enamel demineralization. It not only affects aesthetics but may develop into caries and endanger oral health. Therefore, enamel demineralization has become an urgent problem. Nanoparticles generally refer to solid particles with diameters of 1 to 100 nm and have unique physicochemical properties that provide a new strategy for preventing enamel demineralization during orthodontics. Reviewing the relevant literature, nanoparticles used for the prevention of enamel demineralization in orthodontics may be classified into antibacterial, remineralization and carrier-type nanoparticles according to their functions. Most research was performed on the application of nanoparticles to modify orthodontic adhesives for enhancement of antibacterial or remineralization properties, but some studies also focused on the modification of orthodontic appliances with nanoparticles for surface coating or overall doping to provide antimicrobial properties. The advantage of these two approaches is that they are not dependent on patient compliance. Nanoparticle-modified fluoride varnishes and nanocarriers loaded with antimicrobial or remineralization agents may be used to promote oral health care in orthodontic patients, which have a sustained preventive effect but depend on the cooperation of the patient. It was indicated that the small size effect of nanoparticles provides better performance, but there may be certain safety issues, and there is still some influence on the physicochemical properties of the modified materials themselves. These issues must be further explored. Although there are some limitations in the current studies, nanoparticles are expected to play an important role in the prevention of enamel demineralization during orthodontics in the future.

  • ZOU Rongfang, LAI Xuan, DENG Bin
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases. 2022, 30(6): 449-452. https://doi.org/10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.06.011
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    Silicon nitride has high fracture toughness and compressive strength similar to human bone. It meets the basic mechanical requirements of implants and has good biocompatibility. The micrometer/nanometer morphology surface characteristics of silicon nitride give it good osteogenic activity and antibacterial properties, which are helpful to reduce the incidence of periimplant inflammation. Therefore, silicon nitride has good application potential in dental implants. In orthopedics, silicon nitride implants have been used in spine repair and joint implantation. However, there is a lack of research on silicon nitride as dental implant material. The evaluation of the osteogenic and antibacterial properties of silicon nitride bioceramics prepared using different sintering additives and sintering processes, the antibacterial properties of silicon nitride on different dominant oral pathogens, and the osteogenic activity and antibacterial properties of silicon nitride materials implanted into the jaw need to be further studied. Combined with the latest research results at home and abroad, this review discusses the application potential of silicon nitride materials in dentistry.

  • GUO Yibo, CAI Ming
    Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases. 2022, 30(6): 453-456. https://doi.org/10.12016/j.issn.2096-1456.2022.06.012
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    In addition to surgical treatment, postoperative targeted speech therapy is an important part of the comprehensive team approach of cleft lip and palate(CLP). As the most widely used assessment for speech recognition, the main limitation of subjective assessments is its personal tendencies on results. Therefore, the precise system remains to be further improved. With the promotion of multidisciplinary crossing and integration, computer science has become the cornerstone of a high-quality health care system, and artificial intelligence (AI) has been applied to the field of speech disorders preclinically. Various studies focused on computer-aided recognition and evaluation technology of cleft palate speech, in which compensatory pronunciation errors, such as consonant ellipsis and pharyngeal fricative, were the key features for recognition and analysis. Although the combination with software and hardware improved the accuracy of recognition, current studies were primarily limited to independent acoustic feature identification, and a multiparameter analysis is needed to avoid systematic deviation. It lacks the attempt of treatment with computer science in speech evaluation of cleft palate, and the online platform has not been fully used. The use of AI and subjective evaluation systems is one of the prospect models of the comprehensive team approach of CLP.