The facial submental artery island flap (FSAIF) is a fasciocutaneous flap supplied by the facial submental artery. It is in close proximity with many oral and maxillofacial regions, and its tex ture and color are similar to those of the head and face. The flap has a constant and sufficient blood supply, and it is easy to prepare and has high survival rates and few complications. According to the tissue carried, FSAIF can be divided into fasciocutaneous flaps, myocutaneous flaps and simple flaps. The flap can also be made into an osteofasciocutaneous (myocutaneous) flap with a mandible to repair maxillary defects. Because this flap is a pedicled flap, it can greatly shorten the operation time, bed rest time and hospitalization time and has been widely used in repairing medium-sized defects of the oral and maxillofacial region. The indications for FSAIF in repairing maxillofacial defects should be strictly controlled. It can be safely used for benign or malignant tumors without cervical lymph node metastasis. For malignant tumors with cervical lymph node metastasis but without extranodal extension, the flap can be used on the premise of thorough neck dissection. The contraindication is cervical lymph node metastasis and extranodal extension of malignant tumors; therefore, other flaps should be selected for repair.
Objective To investigate the effects of apoptotic bodies (ABs) derived from dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) on macrophage polarization and inflammation response in vivo. Methods Human DPSCs were extracted, cultured and identified. Staurosporine was used to apoptosis induction and differential methods were performed for ABs identification. The in vitro cultured macrophages were divided into 3 groups: solvent control, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the LPS+ABs. The macrophages were stimulated with LPS to induce inflammation followed by ABs treatment. In the untreated group, macrophages were added with an equal amount of solvent. The specific uptake of ABs by macrophages, the expression level of CD206 and the levels of inflammatory cytokines were analyzed. The mouse models of cutaneous wounds and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis were established, and the mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: the PBS-treated group, the DPSCs-treated group, and the ABs-treated group. The mice were injected with the same volume of PBS, DPSCs and ABs, respectively. The body weight, histological pathology, the expression levels of CD206 and cytokines, and the extent of tissue regeneration were measured. Results DPSCs and ABs derived from DPSCs were successfully isolated and characterized. ABs could be taken up by macrophage. While lipopolysaccharide(LPS) induced production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), ABs significantly reduced the levels of these pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased the expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and CD206 (P < 0.01). In the cutaneous inflammatory wound model, the wound closure rate in mice intravenously injected with ABs was significantly accelerated (P < 0.05). The administration of ABs markedly reduced the pro-inflammatory factors levels and increased the CD206+ cell number. In the colitis model, treatment with ABs markedly reduced the loss in bodyweight (P < 0.05), recovered the colon length (P < 0.01), and significantly increased the CD206+ cell number. Conclusion DPSCs-derived ABs could enhance macrophage M2 polarization and attenuate inflammation. Therefore, ABs could be used as a promising cell replacement for inflammatory regulation and tissue regeneration.
Objective To study the distribution of pathogenic infection and relevance in combined periodontal-endodontic lesions of periodontal origin,and provide the basis for clinical treatment. Methods Totally 43 cases of combined periodontal-endodontic lesions of periodontal origin from Jan. 2018 to Jun. 2020 treated in the hospital were selected, including a total of 43 teeth as the experimental group. Another 41 teeth from 41 cases with severe periodontitis during the same period were set as the control group. subgingival plaque samples and root canal samples of ill teeth were made for test. Quantitative Real-time PCR was used to detect the quantity of Tannerella forsythia (Tf), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Treponema denticola (Td), Digestive streptococcus (Ds), Enterococcus faecalis (Ef), Porphyromanus endodontics (Pe). Results There was no significant difference in the quantity of Digestive streptococcus and Porphyromanus endodontics in the root canal tissue and subgingival plaque of the experimental group (Ρ>0.05), other six pathogenic bacteria in the subgingival plaque samples was significantly higher than that from the root canal tissue (P<0.05); No significant difference in the quantity of Digestive streptococcus was found in the subgingival plaque between the two groups (P=0.241). Other seven pathogenic bacteria in the subgingival plaque samples of the experimental group was significantly higher than that from the control group (P<0.05); The number of Ef, Pe, Pg, Td and Tf in the root canal tissue was closely related to the subgingival plaque in the experimental group, Ef (r=0.347, Ρ < 0.05), Pe (r=0.363, Ρ < 0.05), Pg (r=0.437, Ρ < 0.01), Td (r=0.471, Ρ < 0.01), Tf (r=0.679, Ρ < 0.01). Conclusion The quantity of common pathogenic bacteria in the root canal tissue of Combined periodontaI-endodontic lesions of periodontal origin was lower than that from the subgingival plaque sample, and the quantity of common pathogenic bacteria in the root canal tissue was closely related to the subgingival plaque. During clinical treatment, attention should be paid to the control of pulp tissue infection while controlling periodontal tissue infection.
Objective To observe the clinical significance of miR-135b-5p in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues and to conduct a bioinformatics analysis of its predicted target genes. Methods The expression levels of miR-135b-5p in OSCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were compared using data from TCGA and GEO databases, and the correlations of miR-135b-5p expression level with clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed. Fresh tissues were collected in the clinic, and the expression of miR-135b-5p was verified by quantitative real-time PCR. The target genes with enriched pathways were analyzed by using bioinformatics methods. A protein-protein interaction network was constructed to screen hub genes. Results The expression levels of miR-135b-5p were significantly upregulated in OSCC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues (P < 0.001) and had a good diagnostic capability (AUC=0.960, P < 0.001). The expression level of miR-135b-5p was positively correlated with histopathological grading (P=0.011). Enrichment analyses revealed that the target genes of miR-135b-5p were significantly associated with tumor-related signaling pathways, such as the calcium signaling pathway, the cGMP-PKG signaling pathway and the cAMP signaling pathway. Ten core target genes were obtained by screening: DLG2, ANK3, ERBB4, SCN2B, NBEA, GABRB2, ATP2B2, SNTA1, CACNA1D, and SPTBN4. Conclusion miR-135b-5p may act as an oncogene miRNA in OSCC and has the potential value of acting as a diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for OSCC.
Objective To investigate the features of alveolar bone morphology of mandibular central incisors in high-angle adult females using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and evaluate the influence of aging in these patients. Methods CBCT and lateral cephalometric images of 142 untreated adult female patients were selected and grouped by facial growth pattern. The number of high-angle cases was increased to 164 to further explore the difference within high-angle adult females who were divided into two groups according to age. The indexes of alveolar bone height and thickness in the lower incisor region and inclination of the lower incisors were measured by Dolphin software. The data was statistically analyzed. Results Compared with the average-angle group, the high-angle group had a lower alveolar bone attachment level (P < 0.05) and less bone thickness at the root apex level (P < 0.05). The thickness of lingual alveolar bone decreased with labial inclination of the lower incisors in both the high-angle and average-angle groups (r = -0.251, P = 0.025; r = -0.428, P = 0.001, respectively). In hyperdivergent female patients, the middle-aged group had a lower attachment level of alveolar bone than the young group (P < 0.05), but no significant difference in bone thickness at the root apex level (P > 0.05) was found between the two groups. Conclusion High-angle adult females had thinner mandibular anterior alveolar bone with significantly lower attachment levels. Aging and inclination of lower incisors influenced bone morphology and should be taken into careful consideration.
Objective Conebeam CT (CBCT) was used to measure the palatine between the maxillary first and second molars. The proximal and distal palatal widths of the maxillary first and second molar and the palatal mucosal thickness and bone tissue thickness when microscrew implant anchorage nail were implanted at different angles provided a reference for the clinical selection of microscrew implant placement. Methods The image data of 90 adult patients were selected as the research object, and the jaw bone was reconstructed by scanning. In maxillary palatine, selection of distances at 12 mm, 14 mm, 16 mm, and 18 mm from the palatal apex of maxillary first molar between the maxillary first and second molar were used as measurement, measured the proximal and distal palatal widths of maxillary first and second molar and the palatal mucosal thickness and bone tissue thickness when microscrew implant anchorage nails were implanted at 30 °, 45 °, 60 °, and 90 °. SPSS 26.0 software was used for one-way ANOVA and LSD pair comparison. Results The larger the angle of the microscrew implant anchorage nail was, the smaller the proximal and distal medial widths between the maxillary first and second molar, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Compared with the 90° direction, the proximal and distal medial widths of the microscrew implant anchorage nail were larger in the 60° direction. The greater the angle of implantation, the smaller the mucosal thickness and the greater the bone tissue thickness, and the results showed a significant difference (P < 0.001). Compared with the direction of 30° and 45°, the mucosal thickness at the direction of 60° was smaller, and the bone tissue thickness was larger. The higher the position of the microscrew implant anchorage nail, the greater the width of the proximal and distal medial, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Compared with the positions 12 and 14 mm from the palatal tip, the proximal and distal medial widths of the microscrew implant anchorage nail were larger. The higher the implant position was, the greater the mucosal thickness and the smaller the bone tissue thickness. The results showed a significant difference (P < 0.001). Compared with the position of 18 mm from the palatal tip of the maxillary first molar, the mucosal thickness was smaller and the bone tissue thickness was larger. Conclusion It is most appropriate to implant microscrew implant anchorage nail at least 10 mm in length in the direction of 60° at the palatal apex 16 mm from the maxillary first molar in palatine between the first and second molar.
Objective To explore the clinical application value of mixed reality technology in locating perforator vessels and assisting perforator vessel dissection to harvest anterolateral thigh flaps. Methods Six patients who needed anterolateral thigh flap repair after resection of oral and maxillofacial tumors were recruited from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of Nanchong Central Hospital from January 2020 to January 2021. Before surgery, the CT angiography data of the lower limbs of the patients carrying the calibration points were imported into the data workstation to perform 3D reconstruction of the perforator vessels and surrounding tissues of the thigh, and the reconstruction results were imported into Microsoft HoloLens 2 glasses. During the operation, calibration was performed at the calibration point of the operative area so that the preoperative reconstruction results were superimposed on the operative area through Microsoft HoloLens 2 glasses. The clinical application value of mixed reality technology assisted perforator vessel location and anatomy of anterolateral femoral perforator flap was discussed from six aspects: whether the perforator vessel was reconstructed preoperatively, intraoperative calibration time, whether the actual position of the perforating vessels passing through the fascia lata fulcrum deviated from the preoperative reconstruction result within 1 cm, time required to harvest the flap, and whether the actual route of the perforator vessel was consistent with the reconstruction result, and whether the postoperative flap survived. Results The position and course of perforating vessels were successfully reconstructed in 6 cases before the operation. The actual course of perforating vessels during the operation was consistent with the reconstruction results. The deviation between the actual position of the perforating points and the preoperative reconstruction results was within 1 cm, which met the requirements of the actual asisting of the anterolateral thigh flap. The average time of flap harvest was (70.50 ± 7.20) min. The average calibration time was (13.33 ± 5.50) min. All flaps survived. Conclusions Mixed reality technology projects the reconstruction results of anterolateral femoral perforator vessels directly into the operative area, which provides a new method for asisting localization and anatomy of anterolateral femoral flap perforator vessels and reduces the possibility of injury to perforator vessels.
Objective To explore the application effect of a four-dimensional smile design as the leading and facial streamline as the reference system in the aesthetic restoration of anterior teeth. Methods A case of scattered space in anterior teeth was treated with a four-dimensional smile design and digital aesthetic restoration with ultrathin porcelain veneer. The digital information of the patients was obtained through oral and facial scanning, and a four-dimensional smile design and prediction were carried out. After the treatment plan was jointly determined by doctors and patients, minimally invasive abutment preparation was carried out, and ultrathin porcelain veneer was made and bonded in place. After the operation, the esthetic degree and marginal fit were observed and reexamined one year after the repair. Results The edges of the ultrathin ceramic veneers were naturally tight, and the color was coordinated, with satisfying pink and white esthetics. The face was more harmonious and natural when smiling. One year after the restoration, the facial aesthetics were wonderful, the abutment teeth and periodontal tissues were healthy, and the patients were satisfied. The results of the literature review showed that the fitting of temporal facial scanning and intraoral scanning data can accurately predict four-dimensional smile aesthetics, simulate the real state of the dynamic smile and pronunciation process, and combine it with facial streamlines to design a natural and coordinated personalized smile for patients with asymmetric faces. However, for patients with occlusal changes, unstable occlusion or temporomandibular joint disorder, it is necessary to add data fitting, such as electronic facial arch and cone beam CT, to more accurately simulate postoperative mandibular movement. Conclusion With a four-dimensional smile design as the leading and facial streamline as the reference system, the whole process digital design assisted the restoration of asymmetric anterior teeth with ultrathin porcelain veneer and had a good effect. The postoperative smiling of patients is harmonious and beautiful, which is in line with the expected effect. Patient participation and satisfaction are high; thus, this method is worthy of clinical promotion.
Objective To compare the clinical effect of the tunnel technique (TUN) and vestibular incision subperiosteal tunnel access (VISTA) combining connective tissue grafts (CTGs) on recovering the exposed root surface in a case of gingival recession over the upper anterior teeth and then to provide clinical evidence for gingival recession treatment. Methods A case of gingival recession (Miller I type) over teeth 13-14 and 22-23 was treated using different techniques bilaterally. 22-23 were treated by a TUN combined CTG transplantation,while teeth 13-14 were treated by a VISTA technique combined with CTG transplantation. The gingival retraction height (GRH), gingival retraction width (GRW), keratinized gingival width (KW), root coverage aesthetic score (RES) and visual analog scale (VAS) were measured after operation. Results The effect of post-operation were ideal and complete ginglval recovering were achieved, the postoperative effects of the two methods were stable, GRH and GRW decreased, and KW increased. RES was 10. The VAS score of VISTA combined with CTG transplantation was 6, which was higher than that of TUN+CTG. Conclusion Gingival recession can be treated by TUN+CTG or VISTA+CTG with ideal prognosis. VISTA with an additional incision facilitates the operative procedure but leads to less comfort.
Skeletal angle class Ⅲ malocclusion with mandibular deviation involves the rotation and translation of the cranial base, maxilla, mandible, and soft tissue. It compromises the patients’ appearance and stomatognathic function. The treatment outcome is not satisfactory, and correct evaluation is of great significance. The causal relationship between skeletal Class Ⅲ with mandibular deviation and TMD remains controversial. This review focuses on the structural alterations of hard and soft tissue, the etiology, the choice of treatment methods, and the association with TMD in patients with skeletal class Ⅲ malocclusion with mandibular deviation. The results show that mandibular deviation is a complex disease with unclear etiology. It involves morphological changes, rotation and displacement of the cranial base, maxilla and mandible, morphological changes of the soft tissue, and occlusal changes, which also compromise the temporomandibular joint and mandibular function. Skeletal Class Ⅲ malocclusion is common in patients with mandibular deviation. Early treatment is needed; however, the treatment methods vary. The correct evaluation of the morphological changes of soft and hard tissues leading to facial asymmetry is the premise of treatment. Orthodontic and orthognathic treatment (combined with soft tissue repair when necessary) is an effective method for the treatment of skeletal class Ⅲ malocclusion with mandibular deviation. In addition, there is a close relationship between mandibular deviation and TMD, which needs to be fully considered in the design of treatment.
Universal adhesives have been widely used in dentistry due to their easy application process and wide range of applications. In the literature, the etching modes of universal adhesives, coating methods of universal adhesives, pretreatment of adhesive, and other factors were reported to have an impact on the bonding performance of universal adhesives. This review focused on the factors affecting the bonding performance of universal adhesives and aimed to provide evidence-based recommendations for clinical practice. Current research suggests that the etch-and-rinse mode can achieve a better adhesive strength of enamel and that the etch-and-rinse mode and the self-etch mode exhibit a similar adhesive performance in bonding dentin. The bond strength would be improved by prolonging the application time, applying a double layer of adhesives, and wetting enamel and dentin with water or ethanol before adhesive procedures. Chlorohexidine (0.2%) and metal nanoparticles can inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and improve the long-term bond strength of dentin. Finally, universal adhesives have excellent stability and saliva pollution resistance, although they lack blood pollution resistance. In the clinic, dentists should pay attention to the etching modes of universal adhesives, coating methods of universal adhesives, pretreatment of adhesive, and other factors that may affect the effect strength. universal adhesives will be improved in bonding strength of enamel in self-etch mode and bonding performance in demineralized dentals around caries.
Periodontitis is a common oral disease that represents one of the main causes of tooth loss in adults. In recent years, the application of nanotechnology has provided a new drug delivery system and innovative therapy for the treatment of periodontitis and opens up new prospects for the regeneration of periodontal tissue. The nanoparticle drug delivery system is composed of degradable carrier materials and drugs. Compared with the traditional film, namely, the fragment and strip-shaped periodontal local drug delivery system, the nanoparticle drug delivery system has the characteristics of biopharmaceuticals and pharmacokinetics. Moreover, it has special advantages, including controlled release of drugs, long-term maintenance of drug concentration, biodegradability and biocompatibility, etc. Antibiotics, protein drugs, such as growth factors, and nucleic acids used for gene delivery or mRNA knockout can be absorbed or dissolved in nanoparticles. Liposomes and polymer nanoparticle delivery systems can target bacteria and specific host cells. Inorganic nanoparticles and nanocrystals have good antibacterial activity that can promote periodontal tissue regeneration and play an important role in bone regeneration and bone repair. Dendrimers have internal hydrophobic and external hydrophilic structures and are good drug carriers for periodontitis.